Ιανουάριος 24, 2023

Bryophyte Plates

Inspired by the incredible works of @michael-lueth , I have been trying to arrange a few bryophyte observations into "plate" format. My versions are pale imitations that lack the care, comprehensiveness and attention to detail shown in Leuth's (sold out) three-volume Mosses of Europe. Never the less, it has been a great pleasure to spend a bit of time thinking about how to represent bryophytes aesthetically while reflecting their habitats, growth habits, anatomical features, diagnostic characters and reproductive parts. I've been putting mine together in GIMP and they seem to take about one hour of fiddling. I encourage anyone with the luxury of free time to (1) check out Michael Lueth's work as a photographer and cataloguer of bryodiversity and (2) to try something like it yourself. It is like colouring or sudoku for the bryologically maladjusted.

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Ιανουάριος 19, 2023

A dichotomous key to Radula in the Pacific Northwest

1a. Plants very large (5+cm long), free from substrate with auriculate dorsal lobe and giant solitary oil bodies ocuppying most of cell lumen. . . . Radula auriculata
1b. Plants smaller, growing close to if not appressed to substrate, oil bodies absent, small or more than 1/cell . . .2

2a. Plants frequently gemmiferous along leaf margins, leafy stems ~1.5 to 2.5mm wide, leaves tightly overlapping. . . Radula complanata
2b. Plants withouth gemmae, leafy stems <1.5mm wide, vegetative leaves usually distant . . . 3

3a. Plant with abundant small shoots emerging from axils of leaves, giving a plumose or feathered appearance to the main shoots . . . Radula obtusiloba ssp. polyclada.
3b. Plants lacking small axillary branches, not plumose, often with linear antheridial shoots of tightly overlapping leaves . . . Radula bolanderi.

Of these species, Radula complanata is by far the most common, known to be epiphytic and epilithic from sea level to montane regions. It is particularly abundant on shrubs and alder.

Radula auriculata seems to be confined to hypermaritime locations north of Vancouver Island. I have seen it growing on seashore logs and shrubs.

Radula obtusiloba ssp. polyclada is described in both the Bryophyte Flora of North America treatment of the genus as well as Godfrey's as being hypermaritime on rock and occasionally trees, but I have seen it 5km inland in relatively dry settings growing on alder and conifer bark.

Radula bolanderi is ambient in moist habitats but so small as to easily avoid notice. It is an epiphyte and seems to have a particular fondness for shrubs.

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Ιανουάριος 18, 2023

Frullania in the Pacific Northwest

Frullania is an utterly fascinating liverwort genus. Suffused with little pockets and alcoves in and among its leaves, this leafy hepatic is a remarkably rich respository of cryptic biodiversity. In the US southeast and British Isles, studies have shown the genus to host handfuls of fungal species. Meanwhile, in Atlantic Canada, Frullania asagrayensis has been described as a "cyanobacterial garden" that hosts a stable supply of photobionts held at the ready for lichen symbioses. I have noticed lots of little green algae and cyanobacterial in the pockets of Frullania, but have not seen any published work that looks at the variety of life hosted in our6 regional species. 

Similar Genera

Frullania, while generally smaller, can easily be mistaken for other epiphytic and epilithic liverworts with tightly overlapping leaves. I have at times confused it with both Porella and Radula, The key it to look closely at the undersides of the plant. In Porella, the underleaf is large and unlobed, while the lateral leaf has a large lobe on the upper surface ("dorsal lobe") and a much smaller but leaf-like lobe on the underside of the stem ("ventral lobule"). In contrast, Frullania has a bilobed underleaf and the lateral leaf, while divided into a dorsal lobe and a much smaller ventral lobule, has distinctive helmut-shaped lobules on the underside of the stem, often accompanied by a little projection of leaf tissue called a "stylus".  Like Frullania, Radula has a closely overlapping set of dorsal lobes on the top of the stem, the lobes on the underside are formed by a fold at the bottom of the lateral leaf and the underleaf is entirely absent. So-- if you see a liverwort with tightly overlapping leaf lobes on the top surface and you are not sure, just flip it over and look for the underleaf-- if it is present and bilobed, it is Frullania. If you cannot see the underleaf in all that mess, look for the round little hemlets, also a giveaway for the genus. 

Distinguishing species of Frullania

Regional species of Frullania are distinguished based on the shape of the dorsal lobe, the presence of special cell types called "ocelli" (eyes, if you will-- they show up as darker cells in the leaves, often forming lines) and the shape of the underleaves and lobules. To get in to the weeds, you can check the provisional treatment of Frullania in the Bryophyte Flora of North America. The table below distinguishes the 6 taxa of coastal BC based on these features as well as their size and habitat.  

Table of Frullania species in the Pacific Northwest

Species Habitat Habit Size Dorsal Lobe apex Ocelli Present Underleaf margins Diagnostic features
Frullania nisquallensis Predominantly epiphytic, especially alder Loosely overgrowing, occasionally appressed Large Acute scattered reflexed Acute apices on Dorsal Lobe
Frullania bolanderi Epiphytic in riparian and lacustrine environments Tightly appressed to substrate Tiny Round absent flat, toothed Flagellate shoots
Frullania californica On rock and trees Loosely appressed Small Round-Obtuse irregular, scattered ruffled small with ruffled underleaves
Frullania fransciscana On coastal rock Loosely appressed Small blunt-acute; forming line flat hypermaritime with ocelli in line
Frullania hattoriana mid-montane epiphytic on conifer trunks Tightly appressed to substrate Tiny Round; absent flat, toothed mid-montane appressed
Frullania eborecensis Epiphytic & Epilithic Appressed Large rounded absent ? Deciduous leaves ("cauducous")

One Line IDS

This is the @johndreynolds way of learning field IDs. I try to come up with them but it can be challenging. Might as well try:
Frullania nisquallensis LARGE AND LOOSE WITH ACUTE TIPS

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Ιανουάριος 17, 2023

Comparing Scapania Species in Coastal PNW

Scapania is like the Sphagnum or liverworts--instantly recognizable to genus but then agonizing to go beyond that point. The unequally bilobed leaves with their ovate-reniform lobes are an instantly recognizable feature. There are about a dozen species in coastal BC, many clustered in subalpine habitats. I will try to add more to this table as I am able to dig up records. Using a combination of habitat and leaf features, it is possible to get to species. It turns out the shape, relative size and attachment of the characteristically unequal leaf lobes is the key to figuring this genus out. Three words from this table should be off-putting so I will explain them up front: Dorsal lobe refers to the overlapping part of the lateral leaf that you see on top when you look down at Scapania from above. It is generally smaller than the underlying ventral lobe, which is most visible and prominent when looking at the underside of the shoots. Ventral leaf decurrency refers to the way the leaf is attached to the underside of the lobe. Instead of attaching transversely across the stem, a decurrent leaf runs down along the edge of the stem for a while. This great photo by Richard Droker shows the ventral side (on the left) next to the dorsal side (on the right) of Scapania bolanderi. You can see that the leaf margin begins to parallel and descend along the stem. It is "decurrent".

Each species below is linked to an iNaturalist observation that attempts to demonstrate the features in this table. If you want to get very deep in to Scapania, try the provisional Bryophyte Flora of North America Key to Scapania (link to pdf treatment of all species of family Scapaniaceae in North America north of Mexico).

Species Habitat Teeth Keel Dorsal Lobe: Ventral Lobe (length ratio) Lobe shape Ventral Leaf Decurrency Other features
S. bolanderi Trees, Logs, Stumps, DOM Coarse Straight ~.75 round-reniform Present Dominant species in low elevation coniferous forests
S. americana Rocks and Mineral Soil Coarse Straight ~.5 round-reniform Absent Frequently deep red
S. paludosa Subalpine meadows,  hygrophytic present or absent Arched ~.65 reniform Absent very short keel
S. undulata along drainage on soil, rocks and DOM present or absent Straight ~.75 round-reniform Absent Lobes tightly appressed, often purplish
S. umbrosa Logs (often on the wood) Coarse Straight ~.5 triangular-round Present very small plant, Pointed lobe apices
S. gymnostomophila Limestone near drainage absent Weakly arched ~.3 Ovate-oblong Present giant oil bodies 1/cell
S. uliginosa Subalpine meadows absent weakly arched ~.7 ear-shaped Present Plants "scorched", blackish
S.obscura Seeping subalpine/alpine humusy soil absent straight ~.75 Ovate-oblong Absent
S. subalpina Sand and rocks, predominantly subalpine minute straight ~.9 Ovate Present Lobes seemingly equal
S.scandica Sandy soil absent ? ~.75 triangular-ovate Present
S. mucronata Rock, Soil over rock absent ? ~.5 ovate Present
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Ιανουάριος 13, 2023

Syntrichia table

Species Recurved margins? Costal hydroids? Costal stereids? Papillae
Syntrichia ruralis Almost to leaf apex Absent 3-6 dorsal rows simple, numerous
Syntrichia virescens Proximal half of leaf Absent 1-2 dorsal rows branched, numerous
Syntrichia papillosimma Almost to leaf apex Absent 3-6 dorsal rows branched, numerous
Syntrichia subpapillosimma Almost to leaf apex Absent 3-6 dorsal rows branched, 1
Syntrichia princeps 1/2-3/4 leaf length Present ? branched, numerous
Syntrichia ruraliformis Almost to leaf apex Absent 3-6 dorsal rows simple, numerous
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Ιανουάριος 12, 2023

Making sense of Syntrichia in the PNW

Syntrichia is one of the easiest moss genera to recognize. The broad leaves in a pinwheel arrangement, often with a red-orange hue around older growth, in combination with the prominent "awn" (a clear, discrete hairpoint at the end of the leaf) make it unmistakeable. If you are marginally lucky, the erect sporophytes with the elongate and twisted teeth are another feature that help define this group. After that, however, it gets a little hazy. Of the roughly 1000 iNaturalist observations of the genus in my immediate region (coastal SW BC & WA), about 60% of them purport to be Syntrichia ruralis, with S. princeps being the second-most observed species in the genus. These two are harder to distinguish that I thought. The problem is compounded by other very similar-looking taxa, like S. ruraliformis, S. papillosa and S. norvegica. This post attempts to seperate the species of Syntrichia based on hand-lens level features and habitat. Each linked species hereafter takes you to an iNaturalist observation that I think is representative. At the end of this post is a link to Syntrichia ID resources.

Syntrichia ruralis:

Habitat: This common species can be found epiphytic on hardwoods, concrete, mortar, limestone and limey soils from sea level to above the tree line. According to herbarium records, it is predominant species of arid regions.
Distinguishing characters: When wet, the leaves are squarrose-recurved, meaning they arch back to a 90 degree angle with the stem. The leaf margin is rolled over at the edges almost all the way to the apex of the leaf.
Advanced Characters: This species, unlike similair-looking S. princeps, has antheridia and archegonia on seperate plants ("dioicous"). To see this you can peel back the leaves around a developing sporophyte, place the base of the sporophyte in water on a slide and then squash it with a cover slip. Under the microscope, it will look like this if it only has archegonia, whereas it will look like this if it has both archegonia and antheridia.
One Line ID: leaves bent back to 90 degrees, margins rolled almost to the tip.
addendum: @terrymcintosh has chimed in below with his considerable experience and mentions that three other species are now verified as occuring in the coastal regions. All three of them are part of the Syntrichia ruralis complex treated in this A Scandinavian study and as best I can tell, a microscope would be needed to tease them apart. Syntrichia virescens is much like ruralis, but the leaf margins are plane in the distal half and under the microscope, the upper surface of the costa in cross section is covered by 1-2 rows of "stereid" cells (small, thick walled, tiny lumen), whereas in S. ruralis this is 3-6 rows thick. The other two species can be distinguished based on mamillae and papillae. Syntrichia papillosissma has tall bulging mamillae crowned by 1-2 papillae, whereas Syntrichia subpapapillosima, is TBD

Syntrichia princeps

Habitat: Concrete walls, mortar, cliffs crevices, sandy areas with mineral soil. Typically low elevation. Likes urban areas.
Distinguishing characters: These plants produce lots of sporophytes (reproduction is easier when every plant has the right parts). Schofield's guide notes that from the side, annual growth increments are visible as clusters of leaves along the stem. Unlike S. ruralis, S. princeps is supposed to have leaves that are constricted near mid-leaf. Even still I find this is a hard one to be sure of without a microscope.
Advanced Characters: A cross section through the leaf of S. princeps should show hyroids in the costa which is absent in S. ruralis and S. norvegica. Hydroids are wide-lumened water-conducting cells that are dead at maturity. I find these hard to recognize but you can look here for a iNaturalist discussion about it with links to good examples.
This species, unlike similair-looking S. ruralis, has antheridia and archegonia on the same plant in the same regions ("synoicous"). To see this you can peel back the leaves around a developing sporophyte, place the base of the sporophyte in water on a slide and then squash it with a cover slip. Under the microscope, it will look like this, with round antheridia mixed with occasional long-necked bottle-like archegonia. In S. ruralis, you will only find archegonia in these regions.

Syntrichia norvegica

Habitat: Subalpine to Alpine on mineral soil and rocks.
Distinguishing characters: almost identical to S.ruralis, but with a red awn. Sometimes said awn can be green, in which case you'll need a microscope and some razors to distinguish it from S. ruralis. The leaves are purported to be "recurved" (rolled over at the edges) along most of the margin expect the distal 1/4 of the leaf, where the margin is plane/flat.

Sytrichia laevipila

Habitat (in this region): Garry Oak Bark
Distinguishing characters: This is a tiny little Syntrichia with plane margins. It can be confused with small forms of S. princeps, but the margins on the latter are rolled back.

Syntrichia papillosa

Habitat: Epiphytic -- found once on a street tree in Vancouver
Distinguishing characters: This is going to look like standard Syntrichia except the margins are incurved (not rolled back or plane) and gemmae are purported to be present.

Syntrichia latifolia

Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunks (especially street trees in urban areas)
Distinguishing characters: The lack of a hairpoint, rounded leaf tips and medium size distinguish it from other species in the province. Some forms of S. laevipila lack the hair point, but these are much smaller. Under the microscope, S. latifolia a

Syntrichia ruraliformis

This species is not recognized in the Flora of North America treatment of Syntrichia, and all collections are synonymized with Syntrichia ruralis. In Europe, this taxon if variably recognized as a species, subspecies and variety. I mention it only because @michael-lueth pointed out an observation of similair form here on the eastern Vancouver Island
Habitat: Sand dunes, stony and rocky flats.
Distinguishing characters: Gradually tapering leaves that come to a point and end in the awn. The tips of the leafy section of the leaf tend to be clear (non-photosynthetic).

Links to Syntrichia Treatments

Flora of North America Treatment
California Moss eFlora Treatment
A Scandinavian study taking a multi-pronged but granular approach to teasing apart the very similar species of Syntrichia. Includes revised key and phylogeny but based on Scandinavian material.

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Ιανουάριος 05, 2023

How to (try to) identify Sphagnum (Eventual Video Post)

Field and lab identification of Sphagnum is extremely challenging. I say this after three years of trying to get a handle on the ~30 species of the genus found in my region. Not only do you have to look at a number of features and do a number of preps, but often the character overlaps between species are such that you can be left hanging on an unresolved ID. In the WORST CASE SCENARIO when IDing Sphagnum, you might need to do the following steps:

Field Characters (Video One)
(1) Interpret the overall habit and growth form (Does it form loose, low-lying carpets, solitary sprigs, diminutive cushions, bulging hummocks?)
(2) Interpret colour-- while highly variable depending on exposure and hydration, among other things, some Sphagna are reliably red or brown or orange. Some are shiny when dry. Some plants are candy-striped.
(3) Consider the habitat (is it a forest species? Is it below the water line for most of the year? Is it along drainage margins? Is the habitat associated with calcaerous rocks of basic run off?)
(4) Determine the shape of the capitulum (Stellate? Flat? Hemispherical?)
(5) Search for the presence of and determine the prominence of an apical bud at the center of the capitulum.
(6) Are the leaves on the branches of the capitulum arranges in five tidy ranks around the branches?Do they come off at 90 degrees to the branch? Do they curve backwards as they dry?
(7) Are the branch leaves acute or obtuse, hooded ("cucculate") or fringed?
(8) Look at the plant side on to look for the pattern of emerging branches, both in bud form and in mature form further down the stem. How many branches are presence in each cluster and of those how many are growing outward ("divergent") and how many are hanging down ("pendant").
(9) What is the shape and orientation of the stem leaves? These are the leaves that come directly off the main stem. They are best seen by plucking off the capitulum and if neccessary the first few fascicles (clusters) of branches as you go down the stem. Are they triangular? Tongue-shaped?Appressed to the stem? Hanging down? Tattered?
(10) What is the colour of the stem? Red? Green? Brown? Pale? Variegated?
(11) Are sporophytes present? Some species carry them more reliably than others.

Microscopic Characters
To prepare sampled for the microscope I do the following steps.
(1) If specimen is fresh and wet, proceed to step 2, otherwise hydrate dried specimen by running it under tap water and rhythmically squeezing and releasing about 10-20 times while water runs. Slow route it to just let it sit in small tub of water for 30 minutes.
(2) Pluck off the capitulum, stain it, rinse it and press it under a slide to make branch and branch leaf cross-sections. Mount those to a slide in a drop of water, cover them with a coverslip. (Video 2)
(3) Pluck branch leaves from excess stained capitulum using tweezers and mount them to a slide. Some should be facing concave side up and some should be facing concave side down. (Video 3)
(4) Pull off fascicles to expose the stem and stem leaves. Stain a 1" fragment, rinse it. Pluck stem leaves with tweezers and put them on a slide in a drop of water with a cover slip overtop. (Video 4)
(5) Take remaining stem material and make 1 tangential section and 1 cross section. Put them on a slide in a drop of water with a cover slip overtop. (Video 5)
(6) delicately try to denute one of the stained branched of its leaves. Put it on a slide in a drop of water with a cover slip overtop. (impossible to make video of)

This takes about 2 minutes altogether and will leave you with the following:

  • Branch Leaf Cross Section (Slide 1, Coverlip 1)
  • Branch leaf whole mount upper surface (Slide 1, Coverlip 2)
  • Branch leaf whole mount lower surface (Slide 1, Coverlip 2)
  • Stem Leaf whole mount (Slide 2, Coverlip 1)
  • Stem cross section (Slide 2, Coverlip 2)
  • Stem tangential section (for surface cells, pores, fibrils) (Slide 2, Coverlip 2)
  • Branch axis whole mount (for surface cells, pores, fibrils) (if you can keep track, Slide 1, Coverslip 2)

When all this is done, you will have everything you need to hopefully identify your Sphagnum using the Flora of North America Sphagnum key.

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Ιανουάριος 04, 2023

Resources for understanding and identifying lichens in the Pacific Northwest

Almost at the end of this series-- what better way to finish than with the most complex and diverse group in the bunch. Lichens have long been the enigmas of photosynthetic life. Treated in turns as plants and algae and fungi, they are now classified based on their fungal component, but widely treated as diverse commensal-to-symbiotic communities consisting of fungal partner(s) (typically an ascomycete but sometimes a basidiomycete) and "photobiont(s)", a photosynthetic algae and/or bacterial living within or about those fungal tissues. Recent work has shown that there can be a lot more going on, with basidiomycetous yeasts occuring within ascomycetous thalli alongside non-photosynthetic bacteria. The following resources I have found useful in making sense of all of this while looking at lichens in the Pacific Northwest.

Books (offline and occasionally online)

Online Resources

  • Ways of Enlichenment
    The product of numerous lichenologists but brought together by Trevor Goward's vision of a lichen guide for the region, this is a gallery of hundreds of micro and macrolichen species in the region organized by growth form, informal group, formal groups, genera and species. 11,000 photos. It also includes a link to Bruce Ryan's Working Keys for Lichens of North America, which is a bottomless resource if you want to really dig into different genera (in different habitats).

  • Willa Noble's Thesis on Lichens of the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone
    Comprehensive treatment of all lichens in the Coastal Douglas Fir Zone that dominates the southern coast of BC and the northern coasts of Washington State. A great (free!) reference with keys to genera and species. Taxomony is somewhat dated, but that can be addressed with a simple search after you have tried to figure something out.

  • Lichen Portal
    The central repository to look at the distribution, diversity and taxonomy of lichens. Map based searches are helpful to make checklists and compare your collections with those made previously in your region of interest. You can search by family, genus, species, collector et al.

  • Maritime Lichens Website
    This website is based in Europe but really digs into the nuts and bolts of lichen zonation in maritime regions, complete with abundant photos for hundreds or maritime-to-maritime-adjacent species.

Lichen equipment

  • The NW Lichenologists website has a bunch of information about sourcing materials for studying lichens.
  • The only thing I will add is that lichens are made somehow more colourful by the use of UV light and chemicals. I use a 40$ 10W, 365nm UV flashlight that makes lichens (and liverworts) come alive with diagnostic colours.
  • You can use household bleach for "C" solution when you encounter it in keys. K and Pd are harder to come by. You can order KOH crystals online and mix them 10g to 100ml of water, but Pd is very hard to come by.
  • When collecting crustose lichens, a long blade (knife, multitool, razor) will help for epiphytes.
  • For crustose species on rock, you are likely going to need a big hammer and a big chisel and may the kitty gods help you if the rock is smooth and round.

Like the other entries in this series, if you have more that you think should be added, comment below and I will try and add it in a future edit.

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Ιανουάριος 03, 2023

Resources for Hornworts

There are about 5 species of hornworts in British Columbia, with their numbers increasing as you head sound. Hornworts are ephemeral things that seem to only be prominent (or as prominent as a 1cm plant can be) in the spring when their large horns/sporophytes are developing.

Where and when to look for Hornworts
In coastal British Columbia, hornworts seem to show up in February and March and loiter until early summer around seeps over thin, finer soil and rock. There are also records all over the west for agricultural fields-- presumably soils of the moisture retentive "clod" type.

What you need to identify Hornworts
Ideally you will have fertile material with mature spores. You will know you are at the right stage when the long sporophyte begins to dehisce and reveal the spore mass within. Barring that, you can look for little bulbils (asexual propagules) on the underside of the thallus. The shape of the thallus and the abundance and form of the protuberances can also be helpful. The three genera of this region can be distinguished based on the presence of the bulbils (Phymatoceros bulbiculosus) and, in the species lacking those bulbils, the colour of the spore mass: yellow in Phaeoceros and black in Anthoceros.

Hornwort ID resources

  • @david1945wagner 's Hornworts of Oregon guide includes visual key to all species that are likely to be found between BC and Oregon. There is particular emphasis on spore ornamentation, which is crucial for ID to species in some cases. The site is also rich with complete and visual species descriptions, contemplations and relevant literature. This is my first stop.
  • Doyle and Stotler's 2006 Treatment of the Liverworts and Hornworts of California
  • Hornwort taxonomy seems particularly plagued by ephemeral names and synonymy. This Stotler and Crandall-Stotler 2005 paper is a good place to try and relate one name to another. It also gives a summary of all species recorded in North America as well as their distributions
  • General hornwort biology, morphology, anatomy and classification is well covered and abundantly referenced in this 2020 review paper by Frangedakis et al. (open access).

Hornwort Databases

    Like mosses and liverworts, hornwort collection records and distribution maps can be excavated from the Bryophyte Portal.
  • Likewise, a search through the Hornwort section of the Bryophytes of the Pacific Northwest iNaturalist project erected by @johndreynolds will give you a sense of what to look for, where to look and when to look.

A final comment about collecting
There are only about 50 records of hornworts in herbarium collections for the province of British Columbia. Their diversity, distribution, ecology, phenology et al. are not well understood in our region, so any records for this group are worth collecting provided the population is vigorous and you have permission/permits to collect where applicable. Below you can see @jstraka 's recitation of a helpful rule: "The rule of thumb I have heard for collecting (at least for plants) is the "1 in 20" rule - The further comments below by @david1945wagner clarify the rule "It is a rule of thumb that you should find at least 20 individuals before collecting just 1. There should be 40 present to collect 2. It's a rule of thumb, meaning to be applied on a case by case basis. If applied strictly, it might result in populations of a rare species reduced to 19. With lichens or bryophyte colonies it may mean to take only 5% of the patch or thallus." The full write up of the rule can be found down the page here in a 1991 issue of the Plant Science Bulletin from the Botanical Society of America.

You should collect and send hornworts that meet these criteria to your regional herbarium. If you have questions about this, feel free to contact me. Instructions for submitting material to the UBC Bryophyte Herbarium, for example, can be found here.

Αναρτήθηκε στις Ιανουάριος 03, 2023 0856 ΜΜ από rambryum rambryum | 6σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Resources for Lichenicolous Fungi

Maybe it is the lingering effects of this Beavis and Butthead clip, but the idea fungi growing on lichens seems inherently alluring. There are some really capable specialists in lichens and lichenicolous fungi on iNaturalist. I am not one of them. In my attempts to improve, some resources have been very helpful.

Perhaps more experienced and literate lichenicolous people @eullstrom @ahuereca @toby_spribille can chime in with more print and online resources for lichenicolous fungi in the PNW.

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