Αρχεία Ημερολογίου για Ιούνιος 2024

Ιούνιος 02, 2024

A new interpretation of the evolutionary and ecological strategy of whiteyes/silvereyes (Zosterops), part 2: a nectarivorous species (Z. chloronothos) as an exception proving a rule

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/95051-a-new-interpretation-of-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-strategy-of-whiteyes-and-silvereyes-zosterops-part-1#

In general, the genus Zosterops has combined great speciation with minimal adaptive radiation.

This is explained partly by the facts that

  • Zosterops is capable of inhabiting islands as small as one square kilometer, and
  • most of the species are restricted to islands of various sizes, up to the size of Madagascar, New Guinea, and mainland Australia.

In other words, speciation in Zosterops has been nominal, with minimal modification of a morphological kind.

In this Post, I explore one example - on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean - in which two sympatric spp. of Zosterops have separated in terms of diet.

This example is 'an exception that proves a rule', in the sense that

  • there is a clear specialisation in nectar in one of the spp., including a significant lengthening of the beak, but
  • the adaptation has been more behavioural than morphological, i.e. it reflects a change in 'software' rather than 'hardware'.

References:

https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v088n01/p0035-p0060.pdf

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00720.x

Zosterops chloronothos (https://earthlife.net/mauritius-olive-white-eyes/Mauritius), which is naturally restricted to Mauritius, has

The diet is mainly nectar and flying insects. Fleshy fruits and gleaned insects, normally part of the diets of Zosterops, are hardly taken by Z. chloronothos.

Zosterops chloronothos is not merely a 'cheat' in the sense of taking nectar without pollinating the plants. Unusually for its genus, it also collects pollen on the forehead.

Plant spp. possibly pollinated by Z. chloronothos (https://www.perplexity.ai/search/Which-plants-indigenous-2OJN2oIbQ2eGSNt0negoIQ) include

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629918322725

https://www.biodiversitychallengefunds.org.uk/documents/DAR15038/21379/15-038%20FR%20Ann5.3%20Newsletter%2011%20Aug%202008.pdf

I interpret the nectarivory of Z. chloronothos as follows.

On one hand, it is true that

  • Z. chloronothos deviates from the norm in its emphasis on exudates (nectar and sap), to the near-exclusion of other dietary components normal in its genus, viz.
  • fleshy fruit-pulp, and
  • insects, such as Homoptera (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homoptera), gleaned from plants.

On the other hand, it is also true that

What this means is that the deviation from the norm in Z. chloronothos is open to interpretation. It is simultaneously true that here we have an island-effect, in which Zosterops has 'filled in for' the paucity if true nectarivores - particularly Nectariniidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunbird) - in the avifauna of Mauritius.

https://www.perplexity.ai/search/Are-any-aphids-C5vQp3GrSe.lh2p4rkJcEg

https://www.perplexity.ai/search/Are-Flatopsis-nivea-nQDvKB2KTB..BGtqdj_9eg

Delphacidae occur on Oceanic islands and produce honeydew

to be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/95329-a-new-interpretation-of-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-strategy-of-whiteyes-silvereyes-zosterops-part-3-encephalisation-braininess#...

Posted on Ιούνιος 02, 2024 0521 ΠΜ by milewski milewski | 8σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Contrary to field guide-books, reedbucks (Redunca spp.) do not flag the tail in alarm, part 2: further illustrations

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/39738-contrary-to-field-guide-books-reedbucks-redunca-spp-do-not-flag-the-tail-in-alarm-part-1#

Since I wrote part 1, many further photos have emerged of Redunca spp., further illustrating the fact that, in general, reedbucks do not raise the tail in anti-predator alarm.

At the same time, many photos show caudal flagging in social contexts.

Some photos are ambivalent, deserving closer scrutiny.

REDUNCA ARUNDINUM

Ambivalent:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/61773766
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/173394805
last photo in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148182517
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14971526

Fleeing:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/218713440
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/193576443
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/171666247
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148182517
https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/an-impala-running-towards-the-bottom-left-of-the-royalty-free-image/940715952?phrase=impala+the+animal&adppopup=true
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/198516788
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/197874108
https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/an-impala-taking-a-small-leap-royalty-free-image/940713858?phrase=impala+the+animal&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/an-impala-running-towards-the-upper-right-of-the-royalty-free-image/940716254?phrase=impala+the+animal&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/an-impala-running-alone-side-shot-royalty-free-image/940715954?phrase=impala+the+animal&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/lone-impala-running-slowly-royalty-free-image/940696590?phrase=impala+the+animal&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/lone-impala-walking-among-the-grass-royalty-free-image/940726948?phrase=african+impala&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/an-impala-running-towards-the-upper-right-of-the-royalty-free-image/940716254?phrase=african+impala&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/an-impala-running-alone-side-shot-royalty-free-image/940715954?phrase=african+impala&adppopup=true
https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/an-impala-running-towards-the-bottom-left-of-the-royalty-free-image/940715952?phrase=african+impala&adppopup=true
https://www.alamy.com/male-common-reedbuck-redunca-arundinum-leaping-bushman-plains-okavanago-delta-botswana-also-known-as-southern-reedbuck-or-rietbok-image338558394.html
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148821125
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/148182517

Showing tail socially
(showing caudal flag in social, not anti-predator, context):

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/139267618
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/137558106
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/192598521
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/214995446
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/191950623
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194894937
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/195511236
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/195660436

REDUNCA REDUNCA

Fleeing:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/164070442
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/153803301
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/153179749
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/192075854
Second and third photos in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/210385838
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tick-my_pictures/14625354600
https://www.dreamstime.com/female-bohor-reedbuck-running-female-bohor-reedbuck-redunca-redunca-endemic-to-ethiopia-running-prairei-dinsho-wetland-image145414156
https://www.flickr.com/photos/timmelling/33417983882
http://www.shahrogersphotography.com/detail/18199.html
https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/bohor-reedbuck-running-across-the-savanna-redunca-redunca-maasai-mara-national-reserve-kenya-feb-2009/AAM-AAES70353
https://www.dreamstime.com/female-bohor-reedbuck-running-female-bohor-reedbuck-redunca-redunca-endemic-to-ethiopia-running-prairei-dinsho-wetland-image145413945
https://www.gettyimages.co.nz/detail/photo/bohor-reedbuck-royalty-free-image/977955670?adppopup=true
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/bohor-reedbuck-running-on-the-sand-river-banks-in-the-masai-mara-national-reserve-gm860000324-142176381
https://www.gettyimages.co.nz/detail/photo/bohor-reedbuck-running-royalty-free-image/1193923286?adppopup=true

Showing tail socially:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/198804506
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/190611657

REDUNCA FULVORUFULA

Ambivalent:

The following deserves close scrutiny: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/202324823

Fleeing:

Additional photos showing that Redunca fulvorufula does not raise its tail when fleeing:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/182618563
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/186384586
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/190001674
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/201561171
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/202500992
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/193610954
third photo in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194955710

Posted on Ιούνιος 02, 2024 0508 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 2σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Subtle differences among reedbucks (Redunca spp.) in size of tail and colouration on the hindquarters

The proportional size of the tail varies, among the three spp. of Redunca, in the order fulvorufula > arundinum > redunca.

The following show that the tail is proportionately larger in Redunca arundinum than in Redunca redunca:

The following shows how small the tail can be in Redunca redunca.
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/186544456

The following shows Redunca arundinum for comparison:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/189949624

In the latter photo, note the bare, dark skin at the junction of flank and knee, a feature shared (approximately) with Aepyceros melampus.

Redunca arundinum:

https://www.alamy.com/southern-reedbuck-redunca-arundinum-botswana-image184121177.html

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/169902958

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/192598540

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/194119641

Redunca redunca:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/190595169

https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/oribi-royalty-free-image/1303857740?adppopup=true

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Bohor_Reedbuck%2C_female%2C_Serengeti.jpg

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/156251168

The following (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/109676221) is one if the few photos showing clearly the colouration on the buttocks, in Redunca arundinum.

The following (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104986782) suggests that the pattern is different in Redunca redunca, with negligible whitish on the buttocks.

Posted on Ιούνιος 02, 2024 1059 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 2σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Ιούνιος 05, 2024

A new interpretation of the evolutionary and ecological strategy of whiteyes/silvereyes (Zosterops), part 3: encephalisation (braininess)

@tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @ludwig_muller @jwidness @zarek @hirons @ldacosta @lukedowney @moxcalvitiumtorgos @carasylvia @rion_c @nwatinyoka @shauns @baldcoot @karoopixie @gareth_bain @justinponder2505 @christiaan_viljoen @bushbandit

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/95204-a-new-interpretation-of-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-strategy-of-whiteyes-silvereyes-zosterops-part-2-a-nectarivorous-species-z-chloronothos-as-an-exception-proving-a-rule#

INTRODUCTION

Zosterops is among the more encephalised (https://dictionary.apa.org/encephalization) of birds.

This is based on brain mass relative to body mass (corrected allometrically, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allometry).

This braininess may help to explain how Zosterops has adapted to various biomes, on many islands as well as on mainlands, with minimal morphological modification.

Adaptation in this genus seems to be mainly a matter of behavioural versatility, i.e. via 'software' rather than 'hardware'.

The cognitive capacity of Zosterops may be evident, for example, in

  • vocal mimicry,
  • discrimination among subspecies, allowing these coexist for part of the year without loss of subspecific integrity, and
  • ability to stitch a cup-shaped nest between adjacent flimsy stems in the crowns of various trees, despite various stem-configurations according to the type of tree.

There is a correlation between vocal mimicry and encephalisation (https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/10.1139/z03-190 and https://www.perplexity.ai/search/Is-there-a-8dJObx_JS0CR6jhS3.Dl4g and https://www.animalecologylab.org/the-mimics-among-us.html).

Birds capable of mimicking the calls of other birds tend to be relatively brainy.

A noteworthy phenomenon, in Zosterops lateralis (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/202505-Zosterops-lateralis) in southeastern mainland Australia, is that several subspecies overlap in geographical distribution.

In the normal concept of subspeciation, geographical separation is necessary to maintain the distinctiveness of subspp. In Z. lateralis, the nomadic/migratory movements in the non-breeding season mix several subspp. (https://avithera.blogspot.com/2014/04/silvereyes.html). However, this has not compromised the subspecific distinctions.

This ability to coexist without interbreeding seems to reflect cognitive capacity, possibly extending to 'culture'.

All of the above raise the question:
How brainy is Zosterops, compared to other like-size, small birds?

AIMS

In this Post, I compare Zosterops with other birds in terms of encephalisation, i.e. braininess.

SOURCE OF DATA AND BASIS OF COMPARISON

My reference for body mass and brain mass in various spp. of birds is the data-set compiled by Andrew N Iwaniuk (https://www.ulethbridge.ca/artsci/neuroscience/dr-andrew-iwaniuk). The data refer to adults of both sexes, in all spp.

METHODS

I searched the entire data-set for bird spp. with body mass similar to that of Zosterops, viz. about 10.4 g. I then compared the brain masses on the basis of body masses similar to that in Zosterops.

RESULTS

The mean data for Zosterops are

  • body mass 10.2 g, brain mass 0.54 g in Zosterops japonicus (n=10), and
  • body mass 10.6 g, brain mass 0.47 g in Zosterops lateralis.

This shows that Zosterops has brain mass 0.50 g, at body mass 10.4 g.

Let us now compare this brain mass with those of various other birds with similar body masses.

Families are in alphabetical order.

Apodidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift_(bird)) :

I found two spp., in two genera, with body masses 9.9-13.6 g. Brain masses were 0.28-0.30 g, indicating that Zosterops clearly exceeds apodids in braininess.

Apodids attain brain mass of 0.5 g only at body masses > 25 g, e.g. in Chaetura pelagica (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/6571-Chaetura-pelagica), which has brain mass 0.46 g at body mass 23.6 g. (n=8).

Certhiidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treecreeper) :

I found four spp., in four genera, with body masses 9.8-11.0 g. Brain masses were 0.51-0.53 g, indicating that certhiids exceed Zosterops in braininess.

Cisticolidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisticolidae) :

I found two spp., in one genus, with body masses 10.0-10.3 g. Brain masses were 0.43-0.51 g, indicating that Zosterops slightly exceeds cisticolids in braininess.

Fringillidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finch) :

I found 15 spp., in 14 genera, with mean body masses 8.9-12.0 g. Brain masses were somewhat variable, with particular braininess evident in Melopyrrha nigra (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/10266-Melopyrrha-nigra), which had brain mass 0.84 g at body mass 10.9 g (n=7).

Overall, the data indicate that Zosterops resembles fringillids in braininess.

Hirundinidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swallow) :

I found two spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 9.7-11.2 g. Brain masses were 0.36-0.43 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds hirundinids in braininess.

Lybiidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lybiidae) :

I found only one comparable species, with body mass 15.5 g and brain mass 0.44 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds lybiids in braininess.

Maluridae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australasian_wren) :

I found three spp., in one genus, with mean body masses 9.8-11.4 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.48 g, indicating that Zosterops slightly exceeds malurids in braininess.

Melanocharitidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanocharitidae) :

The data indicate that Zosterops exceeds melanocharitids in braininess.

Meliphagidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeyeater) :

I found nine spp., in seven genera, with mean body masses 7.8-11.9 g in Myzomela, and 10.3-11.4 g in other genera. Brain masses were somewhat variable. However, they indicate that, overall, Zosterops exceeds meliphagids in braininess.

Monarchidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch_flycatcher) :

I found two spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 10.2-11.0 g. Brain masses were 0.52-0.59 g, indicating that monarchids exceed Zosterops in braininess.

Muscicapidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World_flycatcher) :

I found five spp., in five genera, with mean body masses 7.5-15.4 g. Brain masses were 0.31-0.6- g. One species, viz Ficedula albicollis (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/13133-Ficedula-albicollis, n=10), closely resembled Zosterops in mean body mass (10.3 g), and had brain mass 0.45 g.

Overall, these data indicate that Zosterops exceeds muscicapids in braininess.

Nectariniidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunbird) :

I found two spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 8.9-11.7 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.45 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds nectariniids in braininess.

Pardalotidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardalote) :

I found three spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 9.2-11.6 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.45 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds pardalotids in braininess.

Paridae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tit_(bird)) :

I found three spp., in one genus, with mean body masses 10.2-11.3 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.65 g, indicating that parids are brainier than Zosterops.

Passeridae sensu lato, including Estrildidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World_sparrow and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estrildidae) :

I found seven spp., in six genera, with mean body masses 9.2-10.9 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.45 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds passerids in braininess.

Petroicidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australasian_robin) :

I found three spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 9.6-11.4 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.52 g, indicating that petroicids are slightly brainier than Zosterops.

Picidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodpecker) :

I found two spp., in two genera, with mean body masses 8.1-11.0 g. Brain mass was 0.58-0.60 g, indicating that picids exceed Zosterops in braininess.

Rhipiduridae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhipiduridae) :

I found one species, with body mass 10.2 g (n=7). Brain mass was 0.36 g, tentatively indicating that Zosterops exceeds rhipidurids in braininess.

Sittidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuthatch) :

There is only one genus in this family, represented in the data-set by Sitta canadensis (body mass 10.5 g, brain mass 0.57 g, n=6). This indicates that sittids exceed Zosterops in braininess.

Sylviidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylviidae) :

I found only one species (n=7), with mean body mass 10.8 g. Brain mass was 0.45 g, tentatively indicating that Zosterops exceeds sylviids in braininess.

Thamnophilidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antbird) :

I found four spp., in four genera, with body masses 9.3-11.2 g. Brain masses (means) were 0.45-0.7 g, indicating that thamnophilids are slightly brainier than Zosterops.

Trochilidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummingbird) :

I found only one species large-bodied enough to be comparable, with mean body mass 10.2 g. Brain mass was 0.32 g, indicating that Zosterops exceeds trochilids in braininess.

Tyrannidae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrant_flycatcher) :

I found eight spp., in eight genera, with mean body masses 8.6-11.9 g. Brain masses were, on average, about 0.37 g, for six of the spp., indicating that Zosterops exceeds tyrannids in braininess.

The brain mass of Zosterops (about 0.5 g) is attained in these tyrannids only when body mass reaches about 14 g, which is >3.5 g heavier than Zosterops.

However, apparently brainier than other tyrannids are two spp., viz.

DISCUSSION

Brain mass, relative to body mass, varies up to 2.5-fold in small-bodied birds about the size of Zosterops. This can be seen in the following three carefully chosen examples:

The percentage value for Zosterops, viz. 4.8%, falls approximately in the middle of the above range (2.8-7.7%) of values.

However, Zosterops is somewhat brainier than most birds that are comparable on a basis of matched body mass but different familial affinity.

The following summarises the ranking of Zosterops in braininess, relative to like-size, small birds, family by family.

Zosterops is less brainy than

  • monarchids,
  • parids,
  • picids, and
  • sittids.

Zosterops is somewhat/slightly less brainy than

  • petroicids,
  • thamnophilids, and
  • one or two genera of tyrannids.

Zosterops is similar in braininess to

  • fringillids.

Zosterops is somewhat/slightly brainier than

  • cisticolids, and
  • malurids.

Zosterops is brainier than

  • certhiids,
  • hirundinids,
  • lybiids,
  • melanocharitids,
  • meliphagids,
  • muscicapids,
  • nectariniids,
  • pardalotids,
  • passerids,
  • rhipidurids,
  • sylviids,
  • trochilids, and
  • most tyrannids.

Zosterops seems much brainier than

  • apodids.

This means that Zosterops is brainier than like-size birds in most avian families.

However, Zosterops is less brainy than like-size birds in perhaps seven families, of which parids (tits) are the most renowned for their cognitive capacity (https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/files/31008096/e_spik_utku.pdf).

Posted on Ιούνιος 05, 2024 0328 ΠΜ by milewski milewski | 3σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Ιούνιος 07, 2024

Ιούνιος 08, 2024

Ιούνιος 16, 2024

The black-and-tan pattern differs between the dingo and the kelpie breed of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

INTRODUCTION

The dingo is colour-polymorphic, with a black-and-tan morph.

Various breeds of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) also feature black-and-tan patterns of colouration.

The black-and-tan pattern is significant, in evolutionary terms, because it represents an 'wild-type' colouration,

  • adaptive to the original niche of an ancestral species of Canis, and
  • different from the colouration of any subspecies, or individual, if the wolf (Canis lupus, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf).

The kelpie breed (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Kelpie) is particularly comparable to the dingo, because it has

AIMS

In this Post, I compare the black-and-tan configurations between the dingo and the kelpie.

RESULTS

The dingo and the kelpie differ considerably, in the following ways:

  • The pale eyebrow-spots are smaller in the dingo than in the kelpie.
  • The pectoral pale patches are less divided (between left and right) in the dingo than in the kelpie.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Black_%26_Tan_kelpie.png

https://www.facebook.com/sapphirestockdogs/videos/208935040275602/

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/black-tan-australian-kelpie-dog.html?sortBy=relevant

Posted on Ιούνιος 16, 2024 0435 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 1 σχόλιο | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Ιούνιος 19, 2024

Data on braininess in mammals, part 1

Data on brain mass (g)/body mass (kg) in Raichlen and Gordon (2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3120765/#pone.0020601-Shultz1):

Antilocapra americana 145.8 g/35.4 kg
Nanger granti 148.7 g/49.0 kg
Capra hircus 110.5 g/28.8 kg
Bos taurus 454.4 g/490.5 kg
Connochaetes taurinus 364.3 g/156.6 kg
Equus caballus 702.5 g/412.4 kg
Kobus defassa 314.6 g/229.6 kg
Madoqua kirkii 34.3 g/4.46 kg
Neotragus moschatus 33.2 g/3.29 kg
Ovis aries 132.5 g/51.9 kg
Sus scrofa 186.6 g/132.0 kg
Taurotragus oryx 460.0g/480.0 kg

BODDY ET AL. (2012)

Encephalisation quotients according to https://academic.oup.com/jeb/article-abstract/25/5/981/7318385

ELEPHANTIDAE
Elephas maximus 1.46 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43697-Elephas-maximus
Loxodonta africana 1.09 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43694-Loxodonta-africana
Note: Shoshani et al. (2006, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923006001146) report the values 1.13-2.36

EQUIDAE
Equus asinus 0.77 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/148030-Equus-asinus
Equus quagga 1.03 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43335-Equus-quagga

TAPIRIDAE
Tapirus bairdii 1.21 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43355-Tapirus-bairdii

BOVIDAE
Aepyceros melampus 0.88 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42278-Aepyceros-melampus
Boselaphus tragocamelus 0.77 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42426-Boselaphus-tragocamelus
Connochaetes taurinus 0.84 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42280-Connochaetes-taurinus
Damaliscus pygargus 1.20 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42275-Damaliscus-pygargus
Eudorcas thomsonii 0.88 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/74321-Eudorcas-thomsonii
Kobus ellipsiprymnus 0.60 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42328-Kobus-ellipsiprymnus
Madoqua kirkii 1.23 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42360-Madoqua-kirkii
Syncerus caffer 0.52 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42405-Syncerus-caffer
Tragelaphus eurycerus 0.65 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42344-Tragelaphus-eurycerus
Tragelaphus scriptus 1.01 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42341-Tragelaphus-scriptus

CERVIDAE
Alces alces 0.86 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/522193-Alces-alces
Axis axis 0.80 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42166-Axis-axis
Cervus elaphus 0.81 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/204113-Cervus-elaphus
Odocoileus virginianus 0.96 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42223-Odocoileus-virginianus
Rangifer tarandus 1.18 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42199-Rangifer-tarandus

GIRAFFIDAE
Giraffa camelopardalis 0.36 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42157-Giraffa-camelopardalis

TRAGULIDAE
Moschiola meminna 1.04 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42107-Moschiola-meminna
Tragulus napu 0.96 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42109-Tragulus-napu

TAYASSUIDAE
Tayassu pecari 1.13 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42115-Tayassu-pecari

SUIDAE
Phacochoerus africanus 0.57 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42122-Phacochoerus-africanus
Sus scrofa 0.63 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42134-Sus-scrofa

HIPPOPOTAMIDAE
Hippopotamus amphibius 0.34 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42149-Hippopotamus-amphibius

PROCAVIIDAE
Procavia capensis 1.07 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43086-Procavia-capensis

FELIDAE
Leopardus pardalis 1.21 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41997-Leopardus-pardalis
Leptailurus serval 0.91 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42025-Leptailurus-serval
Lynx canadensis 0.95 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41974-Lynx-canadensis
Lynx rufus 1.69 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41976-Lynx-rufus
Panthera leo 0.98 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41964-Panthera-leo
Panthera pardus 0.78 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41963-Panthera-pardus
Panthera tigris 0.54 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41967-Panthera-tigris
Puma concolor 0.81 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42007-Puma-concolor

HYAENIDAE
Crocuta crocuta 0.83 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41886-Crocuta-crocuta

CANIDAE
Lupulella mesomelas 1.20 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1210966-Lupulella-mesomelas
Otocyon megalotis 1.10 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42095-Otocyon-megalotis
Urocyon cinereoargenteus 1.44 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42076-Urocyon-cinereoargenteus
Vulpes vulpes 1.92 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42069-Vulpes-vulpes
Mean value for Canidae: 1.41

PROCYONIDAE
Bassariscus sumichrasti 2.05 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41675-Bassariscus-sumichrasti
Nasua narica 1.16 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41673-Nasua-narica
Nasua nasua 1.63 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41670-Nasua-nasua
Procyon lotor 1.28 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41663-Procyon-lotor

HERPESTIDAE
Ichneumia albicauda 0.97 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41939-Ichneumia-albicauda

VIVERRIDAE
Genetta tigrina 1.16 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41595-Genetta-tigrina
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus 1.25 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/925714-Paradoxurus-hermaphroditus

MUSTELIDAE
Mustela erminea 1.88 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41808-Mustela-erminea
Mustela putorius 0.87 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41812-Mustela-putorius
Mean value for Mustelidae: 1.41

MEPHITIDAE
Mephitis mephitis 0.63 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41880-Mephitis-mephitis

URSIDAE
Helarctos malayanus 2.33
Melursus ursinus 0.71 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41651-Melursus-ursinus
Ursus americanus 2.25 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41638-Ursus-americanus
Ursus arctos 0.91 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41641-Ursus-arctos
Ursus maritimus 0.71 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41644-Ursus-maritimus
Mean value for Ursidae: 1.38

AILURIDAE
Ailurus fulgens 1.34 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41653-Ailurus-fulgens

OTARIIDAE
Arctocephalus australis 0.99 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41748-Arctocephalus-australis
Arctocephalus forsteri 0.99 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41752-Arctocephalus-forsteri
Arctocephalus galapagoensis 1.73 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41747-Arctocephalus-galapagoensis
Arctocephalus gazella 1.16 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41751-Arctocephalus-gazella
Arctocephalus philippii 1.07 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41745-Arctocephalus-philippii
Arctocephalus pusillus 0.80 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41742-Arctocephalus-pusillus
Arctocephalus tropicalis 1.07 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41753-Arctocephalus-tropicalis
Callorhinus ursinus 0.82 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41757-Callorhinus-ursinus
Eumetopias jubatus 0.55 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41755-Eumetopias-jubatus
Neophoca cinerea 0.80 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41759-Neophoca-cinerea
Otaria byronia 0.93 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569313-Otaria-byronia
Phocarctos hookeri 0.62 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41763-Phocarctos-hookeri
Zalophus californianus 1.44 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41740-Zalophus-californianus

PHOCIDAE
Cystophora cristata 0.70 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41706-Cystophora-cristata
Erignathus barbatus 0.71 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41720-Erignathus-barbatus
Halichoerus grypus 0.62 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41733-Halichoerus-grypus
Histriophoca fasciata 0.91 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41698-Histriophoca-fasciata
Hydrurga leptonyx 0.94 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41724-Hydrurga-leptonyx
Leptonychotes weddellii 0.69 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41731-Leptonychotes-weddellii
Lobodon carcinophaga 1.07 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41700-Lobodon-carcinophaga
Mirounga leonina 0.43 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41729-Mirounga-leonina
Monachus monachus 0.74 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41716-Monachus-monachus
Neomonachus schauinslandi 0.82 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/446640-Neomonachus-schauinslandi
Ommatophoca rossii 1.06 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41726-Ommatophoca-rossii
Phoca largha 0.90 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41714-Phoca-largha
Phoca vitulina 1.32 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41708-Phoca-vitulina
Pusa caspica 0.76 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41690-Pusa-caspica
Pusa hispida 0.86 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41691-Pusa-hispida
Pusa sibirica 0.68 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41689-Pusa-sibirica

ODOBENIDAE
Odobenus rosmarus 0.83(?) https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/41766-Odobenus-rosmarus

RODENTIA
Gerbillurus dasyurus 2.48 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/44229-Gerbillus-dasyurus
Gerbillurus paeba 1.40 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1431591-Gerbilliscus-paeba
Rattus lutreolus 1.00 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1458045-Rattus-lutreolus
Rattus nitidus 0.97 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/44591-Rattus-nitidus
Rattus norvegicus 1.78 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/44576-Rattus-norvegicus
Rattus tunneyi 0.99 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/44593-Rattus-tunneyi
Tamiops mcclellandii 2.26 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/697692-Tamiops-mcclellandii
Tscherskia triton 2.09 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45834-Tscherskia-triton
Mean value for Rodentia (258 spp.): 0.98

TALPIDAE
Neurotrichus gibbsii 2.92 (body mass 9-11 g) https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/47051-Neurotrichus-gibbsii
Talpa europaea 0.97 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/46970-Talpa-europaea
Mean value for Talpidae: 1.69

LAGOMORPHA
Lepus americanus 0.74 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43132-Lepus-americanus
Lepus arcticus 0.56 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43126-Lepus-arcticus
Lepus californicus 0.73 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43130-Lepus-californicus
Lepus capensis 0.58 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57560-Lepus-capensis
Lepus europaeus 0.90 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43128-Lepus-europaeus
Lepus nigricollis 0.72 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43122-Lepus-nigricollis
Lepus timidus 0.64 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55908-Lepus-timidus
Ochotona hyperborea 1.11 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/849664-Ochotona-hyperborea
Ochotona princeps 0.93 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43188-Ochotona-princeps
Ochotona rufescens 0.80 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43201-Ochotona-rufescens
Oryctolagus cuniculus 0.65 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43151-Oryctolagus-cuniculus
Sylvilagus auduboni 0.75 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43115-Sylvilagus-audubonii
Sylvilagus bachmani 0.87 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43112-Sylvilagus-bachmani
Sylvilagus brasiliensis 0.86 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43107-Sylvilagus-brasiliensis
Sylvilagus floridanus 0.76 https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/43111-Sylvilagus-floridanus

to be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/96055-data-on-braininess-in-mammals-part-2#...

Posted on Ιούνιος 19, 2024 1114 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 2σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Ιούνιος 22, 2024

Is the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) inferior to like-size bovid ruminants, in braininess?

@ptexis @variani18 @tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @oviscanadensis_connerties @hutan123 @nyoni-pete @capracornelius @tandala

For an index to my Posts on Antilocapra americana (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42429-Antilocapra-americana), please see https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/93100-an-index-to-my-posts-about-the-pronghorn-antilocapra-americana#.

AIMS

In this Post, I assess the size of the brain, relative to body size, in a peculiar species of ruminant (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruminant), namely Antilocapra americana.

BODY MASS OF ADULTS

O'Gara (1978, https://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-090-01-0001.pdf) gives body masses as follows:

Alberta: adult females, mean 50 kg, range 47-56 kg
Alberta: adult males, mean 57 kg, range 47-70 kg
New Mexico: adult females, mean about 40 kg

Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronghorn) states that adult females weigh 34-48 kg, and adult males weigh 40-65 kg.

My commentary:

Antilocapra americana seems to conform to Bergmann's rule (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_rules#:~:text=Bergmann%27s%20rule%20states%20that%20within,to%20many%20mammals%20and%20birds.).

DATA ON BRAIN MASS IN BEAR et al. (1973, Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Dept internal report: also see first comment below for individual measurements)

Adult females: brain mass mean 108 g (n=19) at body mass mean 46.4 kg
Adult males: brain mass mean 114 g (n=12) at body mass mean 50.4 kg

Yearling females: brain mass mean 107 g (n=8) at body mass mean 42.9 kg
Yearling males: brain mass mean 108 (n=7) at body mass mean 41.8 kg

My commentary:

The above data seem reliable.

DATA ON BRAIN MASS IN KOPPERUD (2017)

Kopperud (2017, https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/59351) contains the following data for various wild ruminants.

Brain mass (g)/body mass (kg), in decreasing order of body mass (*cervids are asterisked):

Addax nasomaculatus 200 g/113.5 kg
Kobus leche 208.5 g/105.0 kg
*Rangifer tarandus 290 g/96.0 kg
*Rucervus eldi 198 g/88.0 kg
*Cervus nippon 109 g/73.0 kg
Damaliscus pygargus 305 g/70.0 kg
*Odocoileus hemionus 191g /68.0 kg
*Axis axis 134 g/67.5 kg
*Odocoileus virginianus 166 g/67.0 kg
*Rusa timorensis 169 g/62.0 kg
Nanger dama 150g/59.3 kg
Redunca arundinum 143 g/58.1 kg
Aepyceros melampus 178 g/55.3 kg
*Dama dama 194 g/54.7 kg
ANTILOCAPRA AMERICANA 114 g/53.1 kg
Nanger granti 151 g/50.0 kg
Tragelaphus spekii 156 g/48.1 kg
*Axis porcinus 156 g/43.9 kg
Tragelaphus scriptus 167 g/42.2 kg
Antilope cervicapra 138 g/37.4 kg
Saiga tatarica 111 g/38.6 kg
*Ozotoceros bezoarticus 92 g/38.2 kg
Rupicapra rupicapra 123 g/37.4 kg
Capricornis crispus 136 g/37.1 kg
Antidorcas marsupialis 136 g/36.0 kg
Litocranius walleri 134 g/34.5 kg
Rupicapra pyrenaica 114 g/33.9 kg

My commentary:

Among bovids:

An alcelaphin (Damaliscus pygargus) is brainy; see comment below https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/96029-is-the-pronghorn-antilocapra-americana-inferior-to-like-size-bovid-ruminants-in-braininess#activity_comment_a6a0b6b5-bb1c-4a64-9c8d-8ec382e49a45

However, caprins (Rupicapra spp.) and a saigin (Saiga tatarica, https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42378-Saiga-tatarica) seem somewhat below-par in braininess.

Among *cervids:

The data for Cervus nippon, Axis axis, and Ozotoceros bezoarticus presumably refer to mature males, whereas that for Rangifer tarandus may refer to adult females.

All these spp. are sexually dimorphic in body mass. The apparently greater braininess of R. tarandus than of C. nippon, A. axis, and O. bezoarticus may possibly be owing to the brawniness of mature males. The brain may cease to grow when adulthood is reached, despite body mass continuing to increase for several more years, in males (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10371095/ and https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-023-03424-5).

Also see https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/96248-individual-variation-in-brain-size-in-the-rocky-mountain-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus-hemionus#activity_comment_78209f65-1479-46ba-b7c0-9077763d7f7c.

However, this caveat does not seem to apply to Axis porcinus (https://pestsmart.org.au/toolkit-resource/identifying-hog-deer-cervus-axis-porcinus/).

DATA ON BRAIN MASS IN RAICHLEN AND GORDON (2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3120765/)

These authors give brain mass and body mass for A. americana as 145.8g and 35.4 kg.

My commentary:

The value for body mass is puzzlingly small, indicating that juveniles, not adults, were sampled. However, the value for brain mass is anomalously great, relative to the above two references.

DISCUSSION

Two caveats are that

  • the data presented by Raichlen and Gordon (2011) seem anomalous, in that the value for brain mass is as great as in like-size bovids, and
  • the data for cervids (in Kopperud 2017) are ambivalent, owing to the complications of sexual dimorphism.

However,

  • two of the three references seem congruent, and
  • there seems to be no sexual dimorphism in the mass of the brain, relative to body mass, in A. americana.

According to the interspecific allometry of brain mass to body mass in wild bovids, the brain mass of Antilocapra americana is predicted to be about 165 g, at body mass about 53 kg.

The real brain mass of A. americana has a mean no greater than 114 g.

This means that the brain of A. americana, relative to that of bovids,

  • shows a shortfall of at least 50 g, and
  • is no more than 70% of the mass predicted.

Based on gazelles, Aepyceros melampus, and Tragelaphus spp. in Kopperud (2017), we would predict the brain mass of Antilocapra americana to be at least 150 g. In reality, the value is 114 g or less, viz. 75% or less of the predicted value.

Even Rupicapra (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=any&subview=map&taxon_id=42345&view=species), at body mass of only 34 kg, has the same brain mass (114 g) as A. americana of body mass 53 kg.

CONCLUSIONS

The results suggest that Antilocapra americana is less brainy than are like-size bovids, with a noteworthy exception in Saiga tatarica (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30963347/).

This shortfall is surprising, because A. americana is

Posted on Ιούνιος 22, 2024 0314 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 10σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

Ιούνιος 23, 2024

Data on braininess in mammals, part 2

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/95967-data-on-braininess-in-mammals-part-1#

Encephalisation quotients (as per Jerison), according to Wroe and Milne (2007, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17492976/ and https://academic.oup.com/evolut/article/61/5/1251/6853918?login=false):

DASYURIDAE
Dasyurus geoffroii 0.66
Dasyurus maculatus 0.24
Dasyurus viverrinus 0.61
Sarcophilus harrissii 0.35
Thylacinus cynocephalus 0.45

THYLACOLEONIDAE
Thylacoleo carnifex 0.45

DIDELPHIDAE
Didelphis virginianus 0.17

MYRMECOBIIDAE
Myrmecobius fasciatus 0.59

PERAMELIDAE
Isoodon obesulus 0.31
Macrotis lagotis 0.51

CANIDAE
Canis dirus 1.17
Canis latrans 1.52
Canis lupus 1.24
Otocyon megalotis 1.13
Lupulella adusta 0.92
Lupulella mesomelas 1.19
Lycaon pictus 1.47
Vulpes chama 1.27

FELIDAE
Acinonyx jubatus 0.66
Caracal caracal 0.94
Panthera atrox 0.54
Panthera leo 0.66
Panthera pardus 0.76
Panthera onca 0.86
Panthera tigris 0.84

HYAENIDAE
Crocuta crocuta 1.04
Parahyaena brunnea 0.80
Proteles cristatus 0.91

MUSTELIDAE
Aonyx capensis1.24
Gulo gulo 1.33
Meles meles 0.91
Mellivora capensis 1.62

PROCYONIDAE
Procyon lotor 1.22

URSIDAE
Ursus americanus 1.02
Ursus arctos 0.72
Ursus maritimus 0.90
Ursus thibetanus 1.06

VIVERRIDAE
Arctictis binturong 0.57
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus 0.70
Viverricula indica 0.60

My commentary:

The mean encephalisation quotient for the above felids is 0.75. By contrast, that for canids is 1.24.

COZZI ET AL. 2014 (https://karger.com/bbe/article-abstract/83/1/9/326293/The-Brain-of-the-Horse-Weight-and-Cephalization)

Encephalisation quotients (as per Jerison), relative to that of Equus caballus:

EQUUS CABALLUS
0.78 according to Cozzi et al. (2014)
0.91 according to Shultz and Dunbar (2010, https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.1005246107):

Felis catus 1.0
Lynx lynx 0.85
Panthera leo 0.63
Panthera tigris 0.78

Canis lupus 0.74-1.55
Vulpes vulpes 0.90

Sus scrofa 0.60

Bos taurus 0.55
Capra hircus 0.71
Ovis aries 0.80

Camelus bactrianus 0.61

Loxodonta africana 1.67

Gorilla gorilla 1.76
Homo sapiens 6.62
Hylobates sp. 2.55
Macaca mulatta 1.86
Pan troglodytes 2.48

My commentary:

This study is disappointing despite its detail, because the allometric analysis is poor. Cozzi et al. (2014) obtained good original data on brain size in Equus caballus, but lack a firm grasp of allometry.

However, what this paper does nicely show is the convolution of the cerebrum in E. caballus. And apparently Equus quagga is even more extreme in the number of sulci on the brain. This convolution in equids seems to exceed that in Bos.

Braininess in Equus caballus is

  • much greater than in Bos taurus,
  • greater than in Camelus bactrianus and Sus scrofa, and
  • similar to that in Capra hircus and Ovis aries.
Posted on Ιούνιος 23, 2024 0548 ΜΜ by milewski milewski | 0σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο