Σεπτέμβριος 26, 2022

To the taxonomy of the subfamily Aradinae (Heteroptera, Aradidae)

Aradinae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomomorpha, Aradoidea, Aradidae – “flat bugs”) is mostly Holarctic (temperate and subtropics of Eurasia and North America) group. Here I have tried to summarize information about the taxonomy of the subfamily.

 

The most important catalogs are:

 

Berend Aukema (ed.). Catalogue of Palaearctic Heteroptera. 1995-2013 (the electronic database is supplemented to date). Available online:

https://catpalhet.linnaeus.naturalis.nl/linnaeus_ng/app/views/introduction/topic.php?id=9

 

Thomas J. Henry, Richard C. Froeschner (eds.). 1988 (eBook Published 17 July 2019). Catalog of the Heteroptera or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781351070447

 

María del Carmen Coscarón, Eugenia Fernanda Contreras. 2012. Catalog of Aradidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) for the Neotropical Region. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3466.1.1

 

J. G. Pendergrast. 1968. The Aradidae of New Zealand (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) III – The Aradinae and Calisiinae. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand: Zoology, Volume 10, Issue 10. Available online:

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/periodicals/TRSZOO19680122.2.2

 

Aradinae – Atlas of Living Australia.

https://bie.ala.org.au/species/https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/ef3f3b71-284d-4b4b-9bcc-58646dc5f026#classification

 

Some identification guides (continental or country level, most of them somewhat outdated):

 

Heiss, E. & J. Péricart. 2007. Hemiptères Aradidae Piesmatidae et Dipsocoromorphes euro-méditerranéens. Faune de France n° 91. ISBN: 978-2-9030-5229-4 (Western Palearctic)

 

Ryuichi Matsuda. 1977. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, part 3. The Aradidae of Canada. Available online: https://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/9.811337/publication.html (Canada

and adjacent states of the US)

 

J. R. de la Torre-Bueno. 1939. A Synopsis of the Hemiptera Heteroptera of America North of Mexico – Part I – Families Scutelleridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Aradidae, Dysodiiclae and Termitaphididae. Available online:

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/205520#page/276/mode/1up (the US and Canada)

 

Hsiao, T.Y., S.Z. Ren, L.Y. Zheng, H.L. Jing, H.G. Zou & S.L. Liu. 1981. A handbook for the determination of the Chinese Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Volume II: i-iv, 1-654 (China)

 

Y Nakatani, K Kohno, T Ishikawa, Mikio Takai, Tomohide Yasunaga, Ernst Heiss. 2012. Terrestrial Heteropterans: A Field Guide to Japanese Bugs, Volume 3. ISBN: 9784881371688 (Japan)

 

In the following preliminary list of species of Aradinae of the World fauna I may have missed some tropical species. The status of some taxa remains debatable. The list is available as a table (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1QdLbUQZ9rm_jaDVs4YACV3_PD7gDrCujg5U8JEl2CUw/edit?usp=sharing). Unfortunately, only some Palaearctic species may be referred to “species groups” (according to Heiss & Péricart, 2007).

 

SUBFAMILY ARADINAE

 

Genus Aradiolus Kormilev 1967 (Neotropic)

  1. chemsaki Kormilev, 1980
  2. paradoxus Kormilev, 1967

 

Genus Aradus Fabricius, 1803 (World)

 

Subgenus Aradus s.str. (World)

 

Species known from Western Palaearctic

 

betulae group

  1. betulae (Linnaeus, 1758)
  2. brenskei Reuter, 1884
  3. caucasicus Kolenati, 1857
  4. elburzanus Heiss, 2004
  5. hieroglyphicus J. Sahlberg, 1878
  6. krueperi Reuter, 1884
  7. maghrebinus Heiss, 2003
  8. obscurus Vásárhelyi, 1988
  9. ribauti Wagner, 1956
  10. seidenstueckeri Heiss, 1989

 

pictus group

  1. annulicornis Fabricius, 1803
  2. horvathi Vásárhelyi, 1984
  3. obtectus Vásárhelyi, 1988
  4. pictus Baerensprung, 1859

 

corticalis group

  1. betulinus Fallén, 1807
  2. brevicollis Fallén, 1807
  3. corticalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

 

conspicuus group

  1. cilicicus Heiss, 1990
  2. conspicuus Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835
  3. inopinus Kiritshenko, 1955

 

erosus group

  1. erosus Fallén, 1807
  2. montandoni Reuter, 1885

 

lugubris group

  1. angularis J. Sahlberg, 1886
  2. aterrimus Fieber, 1864
  3. bimaculatus Reuter, 1872
  4. canariensis Kormilev, 1954
  5. laeviusculus Reuter, 1875
  6. lugubris Fallén, 1807

 

depressus group

  1. depressus (Fabricius, 1794) (including depressus depressus (Fabricius, 1794) and depressus leptocerus Horváth, 1882)
  2. versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835
  3. serbicus Horváth, 1888
  4. somcheticus Kiritshenko, 1913
  5. truncatus Fieber, 1860

 

mirus group

  1. mirus Bergroth, 1894
  2. reuterianus Puton, 1875

 

stenopterus group

  1. cinnamomeus Panzer, 1806
  2. graecus Heiss, 1997
  3. lauri Noualhier, 1893
  4. safavii Hoberlandt, 1974
  5. stenopterus Bergroth, 1887
  6. tauricus Jakovlev, 1907

 

species incertae sedis

  1. crenaticollis R.F. Sahlberg, 1848
  2. distinctus Fieber, 1860
  3. flavicornis Dalman, 1823
  4. kuthyi Horváth, 1899
  5. pallescens Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840 (including pallescens pallescens Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840 and pallescens frigidus Kiritshenko, 1913)
  6. rysakovi Kiritshenko, 1951
  7. signaticornis R.F. Sahlberg, 1848

 

Species known from Eastern Palaearctic only

 

  1. bergrothianus Kiritshenko, 1913
  2. candidatus Bergroth, 1889
  3. compar Kiritshenko, 1913
  4. consentaneus Horváth, 1905
  5. czerskii Kiritshenko, 1915
  6. dembickyi Heiss, 2007
  7. discompar Hsiao, 1964
  8. dissimilis A. Costa, 1847
  9. dissors Kiritshenko, 1913
  10. emeiensis Heiss, 2008
  11. esakii Kormilev & Heiss, 1976
  12. formosanus Heiss, 2009
  13. gaoligongensis Bai, Heiss & Cai, 2010
  14. gretae Kiritshenko, 1955
  15. herculeanus Kiritshenko, 1913
  16. holzschuhi Heiss, 2003
  17. honshuensis Heiss & Shono, 2005
  18. komarowii Jakovlev, 1885
  19. kyrgyzstanus Heiss, 2004
  20. miyamotoi Heiss & Shono, 2003
  21. nipponicus Kormilev, 1955
  22. omeiensis Hsiao, 1964
  23. orientalis Bergroth, 1885
  24. oroszi Vásárhelyi, 2016
  25. parayunnanus Heiss, 2010
  26. pictellus Kerzhner, 1973
  27. poppiusi Kiritshenko, 1913
  28. pulchellus J. Sahlberg, 1878
  29. quinlingshanensis Heiss, 2003
  30. semilacer Kiritshenko, 1913
  31. setiger Kiritshenko, 1913
  32. sinensis Kormilev, 1955
  33. smetanai Heiss, 2003
  34. spinicollis Jakovlev, 1880
  35. tonkinensis Kormilev & Heiss, 1976
  36. transiens Kiritshenko, 1913
  37. trapezonotus Heiss & Shono, 2005
  38. turnai Heiss, 2008
  39. unicolor Kiritshenko, 1913
  40. ussurensis Jakovlev, 1876
  41. vitiosus Jakovlev, 1889
  42. yunnanus Heiss, 2003
  43. zhengi Heiss, 2001

 

Species known from South Asia only (excl. candidatus (also Eastern Palaearctic))

 

  1. abnormis Bergroth, 1889
  2. burmensis Kormilev, 1976
  3. malaisei Kormilev, 1976

 

Species known from Nearctic (the US and Canada) (excl. Holarctic lugubris)

 

  1. abbas Bergroth, 1889
  2. acutus Say, 1832
  3. aequalis Say, 1832
  4. alaskanus Kormilev and Heiss, 1979
  5. ampliatus Uhler, 1876
  6. antennalis Parshley, 1921
  7. apicalis Van Duzee, 1920
  8. approximatus Parshley, 1921
  9. arizonicus Parshley, 1921
  10. barberi Kormilev, 1966
  11. basalis Parshley, 1921
  12. behrensi Bergroth, 1886
  13. blaisdelli Van Duzee, 1920
  14. borealis Heidemann, 1909
  15. breviatus Bergroth, 1887
  16. brevicornis Kormilev, 1980
  17. brunnicornis Blatchley, 1926
  18. carolinensis Kormilev, 1964
  19. cincticornis Bergroth, 1906
  20. coarctatus Heidemann, 1907
  21. coloradensis Kormilev, 1964
  22. compressus Heidemann, 1907
  23. concinnus Bergroth, 1892
  24. consors Parshley, 1921
  25. crenatus Say, 1832
  26. curticollis Bergroth, 1913
  27. debilis Uhler, 1876
  28. depictus Van Duzee, 1917
  29. duzeei Bergroth, 1892
  30. evermanni Van Duzee, 1920
  31. falleni Stål, 1860
  32. funestus Bergroth, 1913
  33. urnissi Usinger, 1936
  34. furvus Parshley, 1921
  35. fuscipennis Usinger, 1936
  36. fuscomaculatus Stål, 1859
  37. gracilicornis Stål, 1873
  38. gracilis Parshley, 1929
  39. hesperius Parshley, 1921
  40. implanus Parshley, 1921
  41. inornatus Uhler, 1876
  42. insignitus Parshley, 1921
  43. insolitus Van Duzee, 1916
  44. intectus Parshley, 1921
  45. intermedius Usinger, 1936
  46. kormilevi Heiss, 1980
  47. lawrencei Kormilev, 1966
  48. leachi Van Duzee, 1929
  49. linsleyi Usinger, 1936
  50. marginatus Uhler, 1893
  51. medioximus Parshley, 1921
  52. montanus Bergroth, 1913
  53. occidentalis Kormilev, 1980
  54. opertaneus Parshley, 1921
  55. orbiculus Van Duzee, 1920
  56. oregonicus Kormilev, 1978
  57. ornatus Say, 1832
  58. ovatus Kormilev, 1966
  59. oviventris Kormilev, 1966
  60. paganicus Parshley, 1929
  61. pannosus Van Duzee, 1920 (including pannosus pannosus Van Duzee, 1920 and pannosus incomptus Parshley, 1921)
  62. parshleyi Van Duzee, 1920
  63. parvicornis Parshley, 1921
  64. patibulus Van Duzee, 1927
  65. persimilis Van Duzee, 1916
  66. proboscideus Walker, 1873
  67. quadrilineatus Say, 1825
  68. robustus Uhler, 1871 (including robustus robustus Uhler, 1871 and robustus insignis Parshley, 1921)
  69. saileri Kormilev, 1966
  70. saskatchewanensis Matsuda, 1980
  71. serratus Usinger, 1936
  72. shermani Heidemann, 1907
  73. signaticornis Sahlberg, 1848
  74. similis Say, 1832
  75. snowi Van Duzee, 1920
  76. subruficeps Hussey, 1953
  77. taylori Van Duzee, 1920
  78. tuberculifer Kirby, 1837
  79. uniannulatus Parshley, 1921
  80. uniformis Heidemann, 1904
  81. vadosus Van Duzee, 1920
  82. vandykei Van Duzee, 1927

 

Species known from Neotropics only (excl. falleni and gracilicornis that are also occur in the US)

 

  1. angustellus (Blanchard, 1852)
  2. brasiliensis Usinger, 1940
  3. compressicornis Stål, 1873
  4. fronterana Drake, 1942
  5. granuliger Kormilev, 1980
  6. mexicanus Usinger, 1936
  7. pallidicornis Stål, 1873
  8. penningtoni Drake, 1942
  9. pericarti Heiss, 1994
  10. testaceus Kormilev, 1980

 

Species known from Australia and New Zealand

 

  1. albicornis (Walker, 1873)
  2. australis Erichson, 1842
  3. erraticus Kormilev, 1966
  4. fuscicornis Kormilev, 1966
  5. leucotelus (Walker, 1873)

 

Species known from Sub-Saharan Africa only

 

  1. gracilipes Linnavuori, 1978
  2. zavattarii Mancini,1939

 

Subgenus Lobataradus Heiss, 2008 (Estern Palaearctic, South Asia)

 

  1. bilobatus Heiss & Shono, 2005
  2. khuntanus Heiss, 2015

 

species inquirendae (type specimens are lost, maybe not Aradidae)

  • griseus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acanthia grisea Fabricius, 1794)
  • nigricornis (Fabricius, 1794) (Acanthia nigricornis Fabricius, 1794)
  • tridentatus (Geoffroy, 1785) (Cimex tridentatus Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785)

 

Genus Miraradus Vásárhelyi, 1980 (Estern Palaearctic, South Asia)

 

  1. angulatus Heiss, 2009
  2. foliaceus (Kormilev, 1957)
  3. mirabilis (Bergroth, 1892)
  4. oervendetes Vásárhelyi, 1980

 

Genus Quilnus Stål, 1873 (Holarctic)

 

Species known from Western Palaearctic

 

  1. cedri (Puton, 1873)
  2. discedens (Horváth, 1911)
  3. marcosi Heiss & Baena, 2006
  4. mediterraneus Heiss, 1989
  5. parvicollis (Stål, 1873)
  6. subsimilis (Horváth, 1911)

 

Species known from Estern Palaearctic

 

  1. brevirostris (Horváth, 1901)

 

Species known from Nearctic

 

  1. heidemanni Bergroth, 1906
  2. niger Stål, 1873
  3. nigrinus Parshley, 1921 (including nigrinus nigrinus Parshley, 1921 and nigrinus canadensis Parshley, 1929)
  4. usingeri Kormilev, 1978
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Νοέμβριος 26, 2021

Guide to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 of continental North America north of Mexico

Printable version (pdf): https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Ba-JMVlaZ1n_oE7hr2nTVcq9QuEUtxaU/view?usp=sharing

The genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 is a member of the tribe Anisoscelini in the subfamily Coreinae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae), including relatively few species. In continental North America north of Mexico, five genera and 21 species of the tribe are reliably known, including 12 species of Leptoglossus

Although external characters may identify all of these species, their misidentifications in iNaturalist are not uncommon. Unfortunately, all existing keys for identifying genus species are either somewhat outdated (Hussey, 1953; McPherson et al., 1990), or include all species of genera (including those outside the United States and Canada) (Allen, 1969; Brailovsky, 2014), or, conversely, species of the fauna of only certain states (Baranowski and Slater, 1986).

In addition, existing identification keys are designed to identify collected specimens and often are based on features that are difficult to see in photos. This key I have tried to compile on the contrary, primarily for identifying observations in nature. To help observers identify genus species more reliably, I have attempted to compile a simplified key for species living in the continental United States and Canada.

The key implies the identification of adults only because, in nymphs, many important characters are not visible or poorly developed. Nymphs are easily distinguished by the absence of fully developed wings. Additionally, there is a list of species known from Mexico with their features. For convenience, species are not divided into groups (see Brailovsky, 2014), because some characters used to separate them are not always available to the observer.

Of course, I would sincerely appreciate any comments or clarifications. I am not a professional taxonomist, so please do not judge my attempt too harshly. My main goal was to better understand the identification of these species myself.

I also apologize for any grammatical and stylistic errors - English is not my first language. Of course, I will be grateful for any advice on correcting the text.

I am very grateful to @michaelpirrello and @ncb1221 for discussing the differences in Leptoglossus species , and hints, which gave me many good ideas.

I would like to sincerely thank the community members who have posted their photos under a license that allows its use. This has given me an excellent opportunity to add illustrations to this text. Of course, I will remove it here if there are any objections to such use, leaving a direct link to the observation.

 Members of the genus Leptoglossus are relatively easy to distinguish from other North American Coreidae by combining the shape of the hind tibia and antennae. The tibiae always have noticeable dilations on both outer and inner sides. At the same time, extensions are always noticeably not reaching the apex of tibiae and either elongate (lanceolate) or have more or less deep notches separated by denticles. Some species of Acanthocephala have slightly similar hind tibiae among Coreidae. Still, they are easily distinguished by head form, which does not go forward beyond the base of the antennal base, except for narrow tylus flattened from sides. Segments of the antennae of species of genus Leptoglossus are cylindrical (not widened and not flattened). The first is approximately equal to the distance from its base to the base of the head, or noticeably longer (but not shorter).

Since some genera of the tribe Anisoscelini are also sometimes confused with Leptoglossus, it seems helpful to list them with an explanation of the differences and features, in descending order of external resemblance to the genus.

List of the genera of the tribe Anisoscelini that occur in the continental United States and Canada

Narnia Stål, 1862

All six known species of the genus were reported from the south of the United States. 

Species of this genus are somewhat similar to Leptoglossus with narrow extensions of hind tibiae, and sometimes they are confused either with L. occidentalis (more often species of subgenus Narnia s.str. - N. femorata, N. inornata) or with L. clypealis (species of subgenus Xerocoris, first of all, N. snowi). Even one of the species described in the genus Narnia was, in fact, L. occidentalis (see Brailovsky, 2014). There is a modern key for identifying species of the genus (Brailovsky and Barrera, 2013).

Differences from Leptoglossus: the 1st segment of antennae is always noticeably (at least one and a half times) shorter than the distance from its base to the base of the head.

Host plants: cactus (Cactaceae).

Length 12-20 mm.

Chondrocera Laporte, 1832

Only one species in Florida - Chondrocera laticornis Laporte, 1832.

Differences from Leptoglossus: 2nd and 3rd antennomeres are narrowly dilated; dilation of hind tibiae from outside very broad, gradually decreasing backward, with the rounded notch, without denticles; inside narrow and short (about half of tibiae length), with a smooth margin.

The coloration is light brown, the anterior part of the pronotum, part of the head, femora, and ventral side of the body lighter yellowish or greenish. Contrasting light spots or bands are always absent.

Host plants: Turnera, Passiflora.

Length 16-18 mm.

Anisoscelis Latreille, 1829

One of the species of subgenus Bitta is known in south Texas - Anisoscelis affinis Westwood, 1840. The closely related Anisoscelis luridus Brailovsky, 2016 is also possible there.

It is similar to Chondrocera laticornis in general appearance and shape of hind tibiae. Still, antennal segments in adults are not dilated (unlike nymphs), and dilations of hind tibiae are more extensive, almost the same width and length as the whole body behind the pronotum.

Host plants: Passiflora.

Length 13-18 mm.

Phthiacnemia Brailovsky, 2009

In the south of the USA (from California to Florida), the only species from the previously considered separate tribe Leptoscelini, Phthiacnemia picta (Drury, 1773) (= Phthia picta), is distributed.

It differs from all Anisoscelini in the USA and Canada by not widening hind tibiae. Black, sometimes bluish coloration, with variable (or even absent) red or yellow patterns.

Host plants: Most likely breeds only on Solanum nigrum but can feed on many plants (see Baranowski & Slater, 1986).

Length 14-16 mm.

Narnia snowi © Robert Webster

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Narnia snowi

© Robert Webster,
CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata

© Juan Cruzado Cortés,
CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata,
head and 1st antennomere

© Juan Cruzado Cortés,
CC BY-SA

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Anisoscelis affinis © jmmaes

Phthiacnemia picta © Diogo Luiz

Chondrocera laticornis

By Lila, CC 0

Chondrocera laticornis,
antennae

By Lila, CC 0

Anisoscelis affinis

© jmmaes,
CC BY-SA

Phthiacnemia picta

© Diogo Luiz,
CC BY-SA

Key to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus of continental North America north of Mexico:

1a Tylus (apex of the head) is extended into a narrow projection that protrudes far forward (the projection length is about equal to the width of the 1st antennomere, or longer).

Dilation of hind tibiae is narrow as in occidentalis and corculus but slightly dentate in the outer side. It is also well distinguished from these species by always bright and well visible transverse light fascia on corium. The width and sinuosity of this fascia can vary greatly, but it is always located not only on veins but also on the surface of the corium. Similar fascia have L. zonatus. But in this species, the anterior part's pronotum always has two distinctly separated light spots (and hind tibiae with much wider and emarginate extensions). In L. clypealis, the anterior part of the pronotum is usually slightly lighter than the posterior, but the light part does not occur in the form of 2 distinct spots. Sometimes this light part has a rather sharp contrasting border, but it looks like one trapezoidal spot. The general coloration varies from dark brown to reddish, often irregular.

Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-20 mm.

Distribution. Before the middle of the XX century, it was known only from the western United States. Now it is distributed from the Pacific to Atlantic and from Mexico to southern Canada.

Host plants. The main plants on which the species breeds are junipers (Juniperus) (possibly other species of the Cupressaceae family) and fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica); adults also feed on pistachio, almond, and plum (Wheeler, 2018). Some keys mention "ornamental pomegranate."

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Mirko Schoenitz

Leptogloccus clypealis © strix_v

Leptogloccus clypealis By pynklynx

Leptogloccus clypealis,
wide fascia

By Chrissy McClarren
and Andy Reago,
CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis,
head and tylus

By Chrissy McClarren
and Andy Reago,
CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis,
hind tibia

By Mirko Schoenitz,
CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis,
narrow fascia

© strix_v,
CC BY-NC

Leptogloccus clypealis,
"usual" fascia

By pynklynx,
CC 0

1b Tylus isn’t extended into a narrow projection and doesn’t protrude far forward - only much less (about ½ or less) than the width of the 1st antennomere). - 2

2a Dilations of hind tibiae are narrow, lanceolate, on the outer side, without any clear emargination or denticles. - 3

2b Dilations of hind tibiae are much wider and (or) on the outer side with the visible emargination and denticles. - 4

3a The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are about equal in length and occupy about ⅔ (less than 70%) of the maximal length of the hind tibiae (note that the lower dilation may be concave at the apex and appear shorter because of this). The apical ("free") part of the tibia is longer than the width of the dilations (outer and inner together). Inner dilation may seem slightly shorter than outer because of the concave edge at the apex.

Coloration is more or less variegated, with light spots (including in the anterior part of the pronotum). The transverse light fascia of corium is always pale, present only on veins, irregular (zigzag).

Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-18 mm.

Distribution. Until the 1950s, it was occurring only in western North America (east of Colorado). Still, now it is the most widespread species of the genus, having inhabited North America (except the Arctic) and almost all regions of the Earth with suitable climate and host plants.

Host plants are mostly pines (Pinus spp.) and some other conifers (spruce, fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga canadensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens).

3b The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are unequal in length. The outer occupies more than ⅘ (85% or more, usually about 90%) of the maximal length of the tibia. The apical ("free") part of the tibia is equal to the width of the outer dilation and shorter (usually significantly) than the width of outer and inner together.

Coloration is similar to L. occidentalis but usually less variegated and more monoсchromatic.

Leptoglossus corculus (Say, 1832).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. East of the U.S. west to Illinois and Kansas, south to Texas.

Host plants are pines (Pinus spp.).

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Ryan Hodnett

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Steve Daniels

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Chris Moody

Leptoglossus occidentalis

© Ryan Hodnett, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus occidentalis,
hind tibia

© Steve Daniels, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus occidentalis,
tibia with slightly unequal dilations

© Chris Moody, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus corculus By kcthetc1

Leptoglossus corculus © Nathan Richardson

Leptoglossus corculus © Nicole Hartig

Leptoglossus corculus

By kcthetc1, CC 0

Leptoglossus corculus,
hind tibia

© Nathan Richardson, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus corculus,
hind tibia with short outer dilation
(but ~85% of the length of the tibia)

© Nicole Hartig, CC BY-SA

4a Pronotum has separated (the border of differently colored areas, clear and contrasting) from the rest of its (dark) surface light spots or stripes. - 5

4b Pronotum is more or less monochromatic - the front and (or) central part of it is often lighter but without contrasting borders. - 9

5a Pronotum has stripes (one transversal in the anterior part or along its margins), but not the spots on the anterior part. - 6

5b Pronotum has two more or less separated light spots in the anterior part of its disc, hasn’t such stripes. - 7

6a Pronotum has a narrow transverse yellowish or reddish stripe in its front part.

It is also well distinguished from all other species by the lateral corners of the pronotum elongated into sharp spines and by bright spots on the underside of the body (the same coloration as the stripe on the pronotum). Segments 2 - 4 of antennae are usually also contrastingly bicolored. The corium is without a light fascia, with a small light spot in the middle.

Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabricius, 1775).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. The species is distributed in the tropics and the south of the subtropics of the whole world. In the USA, it is known mainly from Texas and Florida. Old records in Iowa (1930) and Missouri (1965) (GBIF) are probably the results of accidental entering; the population there is unlikely. How this relates to reliable observations in Virginia (iNaturalist) needs to be clarified.

It is a polyphagous species, feeding on many vegetables, fruits, ornamental and wild plants.

6b Pronotum with a more or less broad yellowish or reddish stripe along all lateral and posterior margins, closing into a ring behind the anterior margin. Corium with a broad bright fascia of the same color (similar to L. clypealis and L. zonatus). Antennae are monochromatic.

Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann, 1909

Its length is 14-16.5 mm.

Distribution. Southeastern USA from Texas to South Carolina. Rare species.

Host plants. Probably the only host plant is the mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (maybe some other species of the genus as well).

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus ashmeadi © amarcianae

Leptoglossus ashmeadi By enne_t

Leptoglossus gonagra

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra,
tibia

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra,
lower side of the body

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

© amarcianae, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

By enne_t, CC 0

7a Corium without the transversal light fascia, its veins are lighter than the surface (the veins are lighter in the posterior part and darker in anterior). Dilations of hind tibiae are narrow (but aren’t lanceolate) and short (55% or less than the length of the tibia). Light spots of the pronotum are oblique, elongated to the lateral corner. Lateral corners of the pronotum are prominent, acute.

Leptoglossus jacquelinae Brailovsky, 1976. 

It's a little-known species that was described from Mexico (Monterrey, Nuevo-Leon). There are additional observations (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=any&subview=map&taxon_id=515395) of the species from Mexico (Puebla, Durango, Nuevo-Leon) and the United States (Texas). At the moment, it is difficult to give any additional information about this species.

Leptoglossus jaquelinae © Annie

Leptoglossus jaquelinae © Stephanie

Leptoglossus jaquelinae © Stephanie

Leptoglossus jaquelinae

© Annie, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus jaquelinae

© Stephanie, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus jaquelinae,
hind tibia

© Stephanie, CC BY-NC

7b Corium has more or less clear transversal light fascia (straight or irregular), which is only in rare cases absent. Its veins aren't contrasting with the surface. Dilations of hind tibiae are longer. - 8

8a Corium has an irregular ("zig-zag") transversal fascia (like in L. clypealis - see above). Basal margin of the pronotum is dark, the light spots in its anterior parts vary in the shape, but usually are rounded, not elongated. Lateral corners of the pronotum are more or less obtuse, rounded.

The width of the fascia and intensity of its coloration varies greatly. Still, the light coloration is almost always present not only on veins but also on the surface of corium, and it does not have such straight edges as in L. phyllopus. Sometimes the fascia is reduced to a few oblique lines (or even absent), and such specimens can look like L. oppositus (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/93678277). The light spots of the pronotum can also be rather pale (and vary somewhat in size and shape) but always have a contrasting border. This character allows the unmistakable differentiation of L. zonatus from L. phyllopus and L. oppositus when doubting the shape of the fascia on the corium.

Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852).

Length is 17-21 mm.

Distribution. The Southern United States from northern California to South Carolina. One of the most common species in Central and Northern South America.

Host plants. Polyphagous breeds and feeds on many plants, including cultivated plants (vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants, etc.).

Leptoglossus zonatus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus zonatus,
hind tibia

© Konstantin Grebennikov,
CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus,
narrow fascia

© Konstantin Grebennikov,
CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus By Jesse Rorabaugh

Leptoglossus zonatus © beejay

Leptoglossus zonatus © Jacob Simon

Leptoglossus balteatus © Martin Reith

Leptoglossus zonatus,
"usual" fascia

By Jesse Rorabaugh, CC 0

Leptoglossus zonatus,
wide fascia

© beejay, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus,
pale coloration

© Jacob Simon, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus balteatus

© Martin Reith, CC BY-NC

8b Fascia of the corium is straight (like in L. phyllopus - see below). Basal margin of the pronotum has light stripe, the light spots in its anterior parts usually are oblique, elongated to the lateral corner (and cover almost all the anterior part of the pronotum). Lateral corners of the pronotum are sharp, acute.

Leptoglossus balteatus (Linnaeus, 1771)

Distribution. It’s the widespread Caribbean species. There are old records from Florida. Baranowski & Slater (1986) considered it as erroneous. But the new observation (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/90342438) may confirm the occurrence of the species at least in the South of the peninsula. This specimen has unusual shape on the pronotal spots, but in the other characters probably hasn’t any differences with the "typical" L. balteatus. Since the image isn’t very clear and has not the best angle, I suppose that the record still needs confirmation.

Host plants are poorly known. But most likely, the species is polyphagous like the other closely related ones (L. zonatus etc.).

9a Veins of the corium are lighter than the surface anong their whole length (lighter in the posterior part and darker in anterior), no clear transverse fascia is visible.

Leptoglossus jacquelinae Brailovsky, 1976 (see above) - the specimens without the pronotal spots.

9b Veins of the corium aren't contrasting with the surface, except the narrow transverse light fascia (if present). - 10

10a Corium usually has a clearly visible, continuous transverse light fascia with a straight anterior and posterior margin. The width of this fascia varies, but it never forms a "zigzag" line as in L. zonatus. See also the differences of these species described above (5c). The fascia is rarely reduced to a narrow line or even a row of small spots. But even in such cases it’s straight, without sharp projections.

Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus, 1767).

Note. Some L. phyllopus with the light anterior part of the pronotum are incredibly similar to L. zonatus with the broad fascia of the corium. There is even a particular project for such specimens: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/leptoglossus-phyllopus-with-distinct-pronotum-spots. Nevertheless, even in this case, the spots of the pronotum do not have a clear border. And the fascia is without sharp projections above and below.

Length is 17-20 mm.

Distribution. The Eastern United States, from New York to Texas (westward to approximately Illinois and Kansas). More western records need clarification. It is widely distributed in Central America (as far as Costa Rica).

A polyphagous species, breeding and feeding on various plants.

Leptoglossus phyllopus By Craig Martin

Leptoglossus phyllopus © wildcarrot

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Ricardo Arredondo T.

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus

By Craig Martin CC 0

Leptoglossus phyllopus,
hind tibia

© wildcarrot, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus
with reduced corial fascia

© Ricardo Arredondo T.,
CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus phyllopus
with blurred light spots
on the pronotum

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

10b Corium without continuous straight transverse fascia: either completely monochromatic, small oblique light marks on veins, or irregular light fascia (as in L. zonatus). - 11

11a Corium is always monochromatic, without any light spots, stripes, or marks, or veins lighter than the surface. Lateral corners of the pronotum strongly protrude, its margins serrate, and the surface has a rough granular structure. Middle and fore legs and antennae are contrastingly lighter than hind legs, almost monochromatically reddish-brown. Dilations of hind tibiae are slightly narrower and shorter than in all following species.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood, 1842).

Length is 18-25 mm.

Distribution. Eastern North America from New York and southern Ontario to Texas (westward to Indiana and Arkansas). The range of the species almost coincides with the natural distribution of magnolias.

Host plants are magnolias (Magnolia spp.) only.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © keyojimbo

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © Mike Ostrowski

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © edgeelementary

Leptoglossus fulvicornis

© keyojimbo, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus fulvicornis,
pronotum

© Mike Ostrowski, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus fulvicornis,
hind tibia

© edgeelementary, CC BY-NC

11b Corium has at least one oblique light mark in the middle, additional marks, or zigzag transverse fascia.  Lateral corners of the pronotum are less projecting, slightly serrate only in the posterolateral margin or isn't serrate, and the surface is more smooth. If (rarely) the corial fascia is absent, the anterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth. The coloration of legs and antennae is less contrasting (at least the outer part of antennal segment 1 is brown). Dilations of the hind tibiae are slightly broader and longer.  - 12

Note. The following three species are the most difficult to distinguish, especially from photographs. Often a clear image of the characters is needed, in some cases a bottom view with a clear image of the labium or information about the size of the specimen.

12a Corium usually has only one oblique light mark in the middle but may have 1 or even (rare) 2 additional pale marks, forming a semblance of indistinct fascia. Segment 1 of antennae unicolor, brown. Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth.

Note. Some specimens of L. zonatus have the corial fascia reduced to 2-3 oblique marks as in this species. Usually such specimens have clear light pronotal spots. The posterolateral margin of the pronotum in L. zonatus is serrated, and segment 1 of antennae bicolor.

Leptoglossus oppositus (Say, 1832).

Length is 18-20 mm.

Distribution. The eastern half of the USA (from New York, Michigan, and Nebraska to Florida, Texas, and Arizona), Mexico.

Probably the most polyphagous species. It breeds on plants in 15 families of gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and dicotyledons (Mitchell and Wheeler, 2008), and adults can feed on even more species.

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Annika Lindqvist

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus,
head and 1st antennomere

© Annika Lindqvist, CC BY

Leptoglossus oppositus,
hind tibia

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus,
corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus,
corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

12b Corium with more or less distinct zigzag transverse light fascia. Rarely the fascia is absent or reduced to oblique marks (or even absent) - in this case see the other characters. Segment 1 of antennae bicolor: from the outer side dark (brown), from the inner one (at least in inner carina) light (reddish-brown). - 13

13a Labium reaches only to the middle or hind part of the metasternum (not reaching the abdomen). Dilations of the hind tibiae are shorter (70% or less of the tibia length). Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth or granulated. Specimens with blurred light spots or stripes on the pronotum (see below) are unknown. Smaller (12-14(?16) mm - one of the smallest species of the genus).

Leptoglossus brevirostris Barber, 1918

Distribution. The Southern United States from California to Texas, Mexico.

Host plants are poorly studied, information about them is inconsistent. Reliable data on the breeding of the species is available only for mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (Whittaker, 1984). Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) reported findings of this species on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). In “The Coreidae of Honduras” (Linares and Orozco, 2017), corn as a host plant is mentioned.

Leptoglossus brevirostris © Cedric Lee

Leptoglossus brevirostris © Cedric Lee

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris:
corium with reduced fascia

© Cedric Lee, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus brevirostris:
hind tibia

© Cedric Lee, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus brevirostris:
appearance

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus brevirostris:
head and 1st antennomere

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus brevirostris:
rostrum

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

13b Labium is beyond the hind margin of the metasternum. Dilations of the hind tibiae are longer (75% or more of the tibia length). Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is serrate. Pronotum sometimes has a large blurred light spot in the center and may have a blurred light stripe at the basal margin. Usually such a pattern of coloration occurs in specimens from the Caribbean and Florida, and probably absent in the other regions. Larger - unfortunately, I could not find exact information on the variability of size of this species. Walker's description indicates a size of "9 lines" - about 19 mm (I assume that in the British Museum's catalog of bugs specimens, the line corresponds to 1/12 of an inch). Since the species has been described from a single female (and males are usually slightly smaller), I assume that sizes may vary from (17?)18 to 20(21?) mm (as in L. oppositus).

Leptoglossus concolor (Walker, 1871)

Distribution. Previously, all reliable records from the United States referred to Florida. However, the modern distribution of the species needs to be clarified. The specimen that probably belongs to this species was collected in Arizona (https://bugguide.net/node/view/1451478). The species was first recorded from the United States by Hussey (1956) as Leptoglossus stigma (Herbst, 1784), although in the modern concept, this species occurs only in South America (Packauskas, 2010). Outside the United States, L. concolor is widespread in Central America and the Caribbean.

Host plants are poorly studied. Coccoloba uvifera, Gymnanthes lucida, Chiococca alba, Psidium guajava, Litchi chinensis, Bixa orellana, Anacardium occidentale have been mentioned.

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor,
head and 1st antennomere

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor,
rostrum

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor,
pronotum with light spot

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor,
hind tibia

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Notes on species of the genus Leptoglossus occurring south of the USA.

Most of the 61 known species of the genus are distributed only in the tropics of Central and South America. And almost half of them (27) were described relatively recently, from 1969 (revision by Richard Charles Allen) to 2014 (revision by Harry Brailovsky). Generally, information about these species is highly scarce, including their distribution, variability, and biology. Moreover, there is no reason to think that all existing species of the genus have been described to date. Therefore, it seems to me so far impossible to compile an identification key such as the one presented above, even for Mexico only. But it will probably be helpful to list the species recorded from Mexico, indicating their features (as far as they are clear to me). It should be kept in mind that many little-known species described from Central America (from Panama to Guatemala) can also be found in Mexico, especially in the south (from Quintana Roo and Yucatan to Chiapas). There are currently seven such species. Six more are found in the Caribbean. The others are known only in South America. A review and key to identifying Mexican species (already somewhat outdated) were published by Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983).

There are nine species of the genus that aren't known in the U.S. but known at the moment in Mexico (three species from the U.S. - fulvicornis, ashmeadi, corculus aren't known in Mexico):

alatus group

Leptoglossus usingeri Yonke, 1981. A poorly studied species, described from Mexico State (Temascaltepec), was later found near the same place (Valle de Bravo). It is easily distinguished from other North American species by combining the pronotal lateral angle elongated into a sharp spine (as in L. gonagra) and coloration: pronotal disc with a broad transverse light stripe, corium with a straight transverse light fascia (as in L. phyllopus). Both anterolateral and posterolateral margins of the pronotum are serrate.

Holotype of L. usingeri: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187685&ImageID=179806

cinctus group

Leptoglossus cinctus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1836). This group of species (as well as the following one) is distinguished by the presence of light spots on the sides of the thorax. L. cinctus can be distinguished from other North American species by the combination of the coloration of the pronotum and corium. Almost all part of the pronotum (except pronotal margins) in front of lateral corners is of contrasting yellowish color. Corium with more or less developed straight transverse light fascia. The species is known in Mexico from Nayarit and southwards (to the south, it reaches Argentina).

lineosus group

Species of this Central American group are very easily distinguished by a specific bright pattern on elytra formed by light transverse fascia and contrastingly light (in relation to the background) veins.

Leptoglossus lineosus (Stål, 1862). It is distinguished from other species of the group by the combination of the lateral angle of elytra elongated into a sharp spine, narrow transverse light stripe on the pronotum, and smooth posterolateral margin of the pronotum. Northward it reaches Nayarit and San Luis Potosi. Southward it is reliably known to Oaxaca and Yucatan. Reported from Honduras (Linares and Orozco, 2017).

Leptoglossus talamancanus Brailovsky & Barrera, 1998. Similar to the previous species, the pronotum is without the transverse light stripe, and the antennae are more monochromatic. The species is described from Costa Rica, in 2020 reported from Mexico (van der Heyden).

Leptoglossus subauratus Distant, 1881. The transverse light stripe on the pronotum is much wider than that of L. lineosus. Its posterolateral margin is serrated.Known distribution is from Costa Rica to southern Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan).

clypealis group

Leptoglossus crestalis Brailovsky and Barrera, 2004. A poorly studied species known only from Mexico (Veracruz) and Guatemala (Brailovsky and van der Heyden, 2019). Similar to L. occidentalis, it differs in the thickened monochromatic reddish 1st antennal segment, shorter and flattened pubescence of the pronotum, and broader relative to inner, outer dilatation of hind tibia.

Holotype of L. crestalis: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187679&ImageID=225578

dilaticollis group

Leptoglossus dilaticollis Guérin-Méneville, 1831. The species is closely related to L. fulvicornis, belonging to the same group, and probably also feeding on magnolias. It can be easily distinguished from all known species of the genus by unusually broadened lateral corners of the pronotum, which look like large rounded dentate lobes. Corium has a straight transverse light fascia. The distribution (and even presence) of this species in Mexico needs clarification. Allen (1969) mentions one male collected in Oaxaca. Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) suggest that this species (like L. fulvicornis) is absent from Mexico (without commenting on Allen's indication). The species is also recorded from Panama and Brazil (Packauskas, 2010). There is a reliable observation in Colombia (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8090884).

stigma group

It’s the most numerous (20 species, about one-third of the variety of the genus) and the most taxonomically complex group.

Leptoglossus conspersus Stål, 1870. Very similar to L. zonatus, most reliably distinguished by the structure of the genitalia (Allen, 1969). The external differences are the larger lighter spots of the pronotum (occupying most of its disk) and the monochromatic dark 2nd segment of the antennae (in sharp contrast to the lighter parts of the 3rd and 4th segments). Recorded from San Luis Potosi and Jalisco and southwards (to South America).

Leptoglossus absconditus Brailovsky & Barrera, 2004. The species is known only from two specimens from Oaxaca (San Antonio Castilla). Very closely related to L. concolor and L. stigma (see Brailovsky, 2014 for details).

Holotype of L. absconditus: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187716&ImageID=179476

Leptoglossus subauratus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus lineosus © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Leptoglossus talamancanus © Emanuel Rodríguez

Leptoglossus subauratus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus lineosus

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus talamancanus

© Emanuel Rodríguez, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus cinctus © Ísis Meri Medri

Leptoglossus dilaticollis © Matheus M. Santos

Leptoglossus conspersus © Joaquín Movia

Leptoglossus cinctus

© Ísis Meri Medri, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus dilaticollis

© Matheus M. Santos, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus conspersus

© Joaquín Movia, CC BY-NC

LITERATURE

Allen, R.C. 1969. A revision of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Entomologia Americana, 45, 35–140. Available from: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/part/177213

Baranowski, R.M. & Slater, J.A. 1986. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Vol. 12. Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, 82 pp. Available from: https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000092/00001

Brailovsky, H. 2014. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms, Zootaxa 3794 (1), pp. 143-178. Available from: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CFDF4BDB2DD822FF16FA9DAFB5F99D

Brailovsky, H. 2016, The genus Anisoscelis Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini): new species, taxonomical arrangements, distributional records and key, Zootaxa 4144 (2), pp. 195-210 Available from: http://tb.plazi.org/GgServer/html/4C3687F47077CA30FF77D0A8FA6BF929

Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E. 2013. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus, Zootaxa 3736 (3), pp. 285-290. Available from: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/7756305CFFDDFFF2FF0B0265FA0E9BFA

Brailovsky H., Sánchez C. 1983. Hemiptera-Heteroptera de México XXIX. Revisión de la familia Coreidae Leach. Parte 4. Tribu Anisoscelidini Amyot-Serville. Anales del Instituto de Biología. UNAM. Serie zoología, 53: 219-275.

Brailovsky,  H.  &  van  der  Heyden,  T.  2019. New  distributional  notes  and  key  to the  known  species  of Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville from Guatemala (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini). Revista  Chilena  de  Entomología 45(1): 175-180. Available from: https://www.biotaxa.org/rce/article/view/48711/42165

Hussey R.F. 1953. Concerning some North American Coreidae (Hemiptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 48: 29-34. Available from: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/204896#page/375/mode/1up

Linares, C.A. and Orozco, J. 2017. The Coreidae of Honduras (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Biodiversity Data Journal, 5: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5.e13067.

McPherson, J.E.; Packauskas, R.J.; Taylor, S.J.; and O'Brien, M.F. 1990. Eastern range rxtension of Leptoglossus occidentalis With a key to Leptoglossus species of America North of Mexico (Heteroptera: Coreidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist, 23 (2). Available from: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol23/iss2/5

Mitchell P.L. and A. G. Wheeler Jr. 2008. Host Plants of Leptoglossus oppositus (Say) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 110(4): 1034-1041. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797-110.4.1034

Packauskas, R. 2010. Catalog of the Coreidae, or Leaf-Footed Bugs, of the New World. Fort Hays Studies, 4(5): 270 pp. Available from: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/fort_hays_studies_series/71/

Torre-Bueno, J. R. de la. 1941. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Part II. Families Coreidae, Alydidae, Corizidae, Neididae, Pyrrhocoridae and Thaumastotheriidae. Entomologica Americana (New Series), 21:41-122. Available from: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/205451#page/55/mode/1up

van der Heyden, T. 2020. First records of Leptoglossus talamancanus Brailovsky & Barrera, 1998 (Hemiptera:Heteroptera: Coreidae) for Belize and Mexico. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 24(1): 45-46. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342109833_First_records_of_Leptoglossus_talamancanus_Brailovsky_Barrera_1998_Hemiptera_Heteroptera_Coreidae_for_Belize_and_Mexico

Wheeler A.G. Jr. 2018. Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann (Hemiptera: Coreidae): Eastward Spread in North America, New Host Records, and Evaluation of Host Range. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 120(1): 196-210. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.120.1.196

Whittaker P.L. 1984. The insect fauna of mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum, Loranthaceae) in southern Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist, 29: 435‑444. https://doi.org/10.2307/3670996

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Οκτώβριος 27, 2020

php-inaturalist: first step

iNaturalist provides a rich and flexible application programming interface for data management. This provides extensive opportunities for creating applications to interact with the iNaturalist site. However, there are only a few open source software implementations of the iNaturalist API client. Thus, I could not find any implementation of such client in PHP.

With the large amount of data on biodiversity collected over the years, I would sincerely like to make it freely available to the scientific community. iNaturalist provides great opportunities for this, but the standard web interface of the site is not well suited for uploading large numbers of observations with a non-standard set of parameters.

Practically, the only way to solve this problem is to develop an own application to interact with iNaturalist using the API. And the main problem on this way for me was the absence of available implementation of the client in the most ordinary and well-known programming language.

Well: if no one has done it before, it is necessary to do it myself. I have prepared a small set of tools to interact with iNaturalist, including:

- php client for the iNaturalist API (just some endpoints are implemented, but most important for observation uploading: POST/observations, POST/observation_field_value, POST/observation_photos, GET/taxa).

- some useful tools for data processing: function for parsing exif data from geotagged photo and time zone server for determine the time zone by geographic longitude and latitude (both returns the data in in iNaturalist API compatible format).

All these tools are freely available under GPL v.3 in the GitHub repository.

In despite of still limited possibilities, the current implementation of php-inaturalist allows to fully automate the creation of observations. Thus, the observation https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63307123 was created using only the php client for the iNaturalist.

I hope this is only the first step in developing a php client for the iNaturalist API. The next goal is to create a PHP application to upload observations on the iNaturalist, primarily data on digitized collection samples.

Αναρτήθηκε στις Οκτώβριος 27, 2020 0150 ΜΜ από kgrebennikov kgrebennikov | 3σχόλια | Αφήστε ένα σχόλιο

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