Stemless White Violets in Pennsylvania

Gosh they're confusing. Here's a summary table derived from the master key on Harvey Ballard's website. These are only notes; please cite his website/papers, not this journal entry, which is just a PA-centric re-formatting, including many direct quotations. Again, this is not my work.

Viola odorata can also have white petals sometimes, but it's usually pretty easy to distinguish from this group based on its style shape and large flowers.

Viola... lanceolata primulifolia renifolia minuscula blanda incognita
leaf blades
length vs. width
3 – 8× 1.5 – 2× < 1.2 × < 1.2 × < 1.2 × < 1.2 ×
base cuneate rounded – subcordate deeply cordate shallowly to deeply cordate deeply cordate shallowly, broadly cordate
carriage** lying on substrate
(or widely spreading)
elevated and spreading elevated and spreading elevated and spreading
color bicolorous
(darker green above)
faces uniformly green bicolorous
(darker green above)
bicolorous
(darker green above)
pubescence entirely glabrous
or
dense on one or both surfaces
strictly glabrous glabrous except for scattered appressed hairs on upper surface glabrous or sparsely to densely hirsute, including petiole
shape broadly ovate or suborbicular to broadly reniform, occasionally suborbicular narrowly to broadly ovate, deltate-ovate, suborbicular or subreniform (very rarely reniform)
apex abruptly apiculate, obtuse or rounded
at least some broader than long
apex obtuse to acute-acuminate
at least some broader than long
apex obtuse to acute-acuminate
margins usually shallowly crenate shallowly crenate low-serrate, teeth noticeable
sinus length < ¼ length of blade > ¼ length of blade
(often > ⅓)
basal lobes touching or overlapping well-separated or divergent
petioles red-tinged or spotted greenish
rhizome vertical, twisted
lacking stolons*
horizontal, stoloniform
producing stolons*
horizontal, stoloniform
producing stolons*
horizontal, stoloniform
producing stolons*
lateral petals beardless (or nearly so) beardless (or nearly so) beardless bearded
cleistogamous capsule
coloration
purple-spotted unspotted or with fine red spots red-purple to purple spots/blotches purple spots/blotches
peduncle short and prostrate
arcing upward only when opening
long and erect, often surpassing petioles prostrate, then arcing, sometimes surpassing petioles prostrate, then arcing, much shorter than petioles
length /mm 3.5 – 8 7 – 14
seeds
color
orange-brown – brown
unspotted
med- dark- olive-brown or brownish-black
fine black spots
brownish-blackish
unspotted
light to medium brown
unspotted
dimensions /mm 1.7 – 2.4 × 1.2 – 1.4 0.8 – 1.4 × 0.7 – 0.8 1.2 – 1.3 × 0.7 – 0.8 1.6 – 2.2 × 1.0 – 1.3

*stolons may be above or below surface of substrate, and may not be apparent until summer.
**in life, especially during fruiting




Synonymy with the taxa currently on iNat:

V. minuscula V. blanda V. incognita
V. macloskeyi (in part)
V. pallens (in part?)
V. pallens ssp. pallens
V. pallens ssp. subreptans
V. macloskeyi ssp. pallens
V. blanda (in part)
V. blanda var. blanda
V. blanda (in part)
V. blanda var. palustriformis

Αναρτήθηκε από ddennism ddennism, Απρίλιος 22, 2021 1252 ΠΜ

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